Weather analysis and forecasting applying satellite water by Georgiev, Christo G.; Maynard, Karine; Santurette, Patrick

By Georgiev, Christo G.; Maynard, Karine; Santurette, Patrick

Weather research and Forecasting: making use of satellite tv for pc Water Vapor Imagery and capability Vorticity research, moment Edition, is a step by step crucial education guide for forecasters in meteorological companies around the world, and a beneficial textual content for graduate scholars in atmospheric physics and satellite tv for pc meteorology. during this sensible advisor, P. Santurette, C.G. Georgiev, and ok. Maynard express the best way to interpret water vapor styles by way of dynamical methods within the surroundings and their relation to diagnostics to be had from numerical climate prediction types. specifically, they pay attention to the shut courting among satellite tv for pc imagery and the capability vorticity fields within the top troposphere and decrease stratosphere. those functions are illustrated with colour pictures in keeping with actual meteorological occasions over mid-latitudes, subtropical and tropical areas.

  • Presents interpretation of the water vapor channels 6.2 and 7.3µm in addition to advances in line with satellite tv for pc info to enhance realizing of atmospheric thermodynamics
    • Improves by way of new schemes the certainty of upper-level dynamics, midlatitudes cyclogenesis and fronts over a variety of geographical components
      • Provides research of deep convective phenomena to raised comprehend the improvement of sturdy thunderstorms and to enhance forecasting of critical convective events
      • Includes effective operational forecasting tools for interpretation of information from NWP models
      • Offers info on satellite tv for pc water vapor pictures and power vorticity fields to examine and forecast convective phenomena and thunderstorms

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      However, the brightness temperature will not increase identically to the warming of the atmospheric column, since changes of the air temperature also lead to some differences in the absorption characteristics of the atmosphere. The temperature may dramatically change the origin of the radiation. In the absence of large temperature inversions, the coldness of the air does not violate the topographic concept because relative humidity differences and various vertical distributions of moisture will exist and show on imagery as variations of gray shades.

      Since the cloud tops and residual moisture are in very cold air, the pattern on the image is often of equal gray shades (at location of the blue arrow), or even lighter, than the moisture of the adjacent areas. 3 mm CHANNELS In general, the radiation from WV that reaches the satellite does not arrive from a single surface or level but from some layer of finite depth. WVdin typical concentrationsdis semitransparent to the radiation. Therefore, the brightness temperature measured by the satellite is a net temperature of some layer of moisture, not the temperature of any single surface or level.

      Such an example is associated with stratocumulus clouds at the yellow arrows in Fig. 3D. In this situation, the lowlevel convective cells, seen in the IR image, produce different gray shades in the WV images in Fig. 3A and B. Convective cells (open type) often expand and extend upward into the cold mid-tropospheric air within an upper air trough environment, most likely over oceanic or large flat continental areas as shown in Fig. 4. Since the associated tropopause is low (at the red arrow in Fig.

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