Viroids by A. Hadidi, Ricardo Flores, John W. Randles, Joseph S.

By A. Hadidi, Ricardo Flores, John W. Randles, Joseph S. Semancik

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1984; 19Duran-Vila et al. 1988b; 20Hadidi et al. 1991; Skrzeczkowski et al. 1993; Hurtt et al. 1996; 21Duran-Vila et al. 1988b; 22Koltunow et al. 1989; Rezaian et al. 1992; Szychowski et al. 1998; 23Flores et al. 1991; Ambrós et al. 1995b; 24Fonseca et al. 1989; Singh et al. 1991a; 25Di Serio et al. 1996; 26Wei et al. 1983, 1986; 27Singh et al. 1988a; 28Ito et al. 1993; 29Bhattiprolu 1993; 30Bhattiprolu 1991. 32 BIOLOGY aurantiaca and Nicotiana glutinosa and was not observed to replicate in any of them (Puchta et al.

1982). single member of the genus Avsunviroid, and PLMVd and CChMVd belong to the genus Pelamoviroid. BIOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES Biophysical properties of some viroids had been determined even before the nucleotide sequences became known (for review see Riesner and Steger 1990). For example the molecular weights were measured by analytical ultracentrifugation, the nature of a covalently closed circular single stranded RNA was deduced from electron-microscopy studies under denaturing 16 conditions, the rod-like native structure from hydrodynamic and thermodynamic studies, and the secondary structure of a series of short double helices and small internal loops was concluded originally from the extraordinary cooperativity in thermal denaturation experiments.

1976) and Randles et al. (1982). hydrodynamic, thermodynamic and kinetic properties of general interest. 1 M NaCl, 5 mM MgCl, 1 mM EDTA) and extrapolated to standard conditions (zero concentration, 20, water). 2. 1 Optical denaturation curve of circular PSTVd. 8. In addition to the differentiated curve at 260 nm (∆∆A/∆T, thin line), the hypochromicities (∆A, thick lines) at 260 and 280 nm are depicted. The ordinates are given in milliabsorption units, the absorption of the sample at 40°C and 260 nm was 1.

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