By Andrew McLeish
This basically useful publication offers with the ideas of utilising and repairing concrete in either freshwater and marine environments. fabric formerly scattered in the course of the literature has been collated into one handy quantity, to aid the engineer in determining and overcoming the numerous difficulties linked to underwater concreting.
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Additional resources for Underwater Concreting and Repair
Fig. 1 Visual inspection This is the simplest approach to inspection, it is limited in that only surface evidence of deterioration can be detected. It only reveals internal problems, such as reinforcement corrosion, when the problem is in an advanced state. 2 Coring If there is question as to the interior deterioration of the concrete then it is possible to take cores from the structure. Standard electric core drilling equipment is not readily adaptable for underwater use. However, standard core drilling frames have been modified for underwater use by replacing electric power with hydraulic or pneumatic power drills.
Certain aggregates of carbonate rock have been found to be reactive in concrete. The results of these reactions have been characterized as ranging from beneficial to destructive. 7 Once the passive film around the steel is broken, corrosion can commence. 3. Anode Fig. 3 The corrosion cell Cathode Cathode Aerated water tidal range Anode Fig. 4 The macro corrosion cell This cell consists of an anode and a cathode. The anodic cell is created once the passive layer is broken. The associated cathodic area occurs at any site where conditions are conducive.
At one extreme a diver can be expected to work in 2 m of water inspecting a bridge pier, and at the other extreme a dive operation offshore will require a diver to work at depths of 150 m on a concrete production platform. 2). 2 Diver qualifications (UK HSE Regulations) Standard Description Part IV Self-contained breathing apparatus (Scuba). g. dock and harbour work Basic air diving qualification for off-shore work. Depth of up to 50m Mixed-gas diving. 2 Remote-operated vehicles (ROV) As the complexity of a diver operation increases, the cost rises.