Underwater acoustic modeling: principles, techniques and by P.C. Etter

By P.C. Etter

The topic of underwater acoustic modeling offers with the interpretation of our actual realizing of sound within the sea into mathematical formulation solvable by way of desktops. This publication divides the topic of underwater acoustic modeling into 3 basic points: the actual ideas used to formulate underwater acoustic types the mathematical ideas used to translate those rules into laptop versions and modeling purposes in sonar know-how and oceanographic learn.

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126–7). This is a condition in which the acoustic pressure at the air-water interface is nearly zero, the amplitude of the reflected wave (in water) is almost equal to that of the incident wave, and there is a 180° phase shift. It is also common practice to use the term ‘reflection coefficient’ to express the amount of acoustic energy reflected from a surface or boundary between two media. This coefficient depends upon the grazing angle and the difference in the acoustic impedance between the two media.

Chin–Bing et al. (1993a) numerically simulated low-frequency backscatter from internal waves in shallow water. One problem in testing theories of acoustic propagation in inhomogeneous media is the inability to determine accurately the spatial and temporal scales associated with fluctuations in the index of refraction. These fluctuations can be caused by tides, internal waves and fine-scale features. Ewart and Reynolds (1984) reported results from the Mid-Ocean Acoustic Transmission Experiment (MATE).

ACOUSTICAL OCEANOGRAPHY 25 Two other commonly used wave height descriptors are the rms wave height (Hrms) and the one-tenth significant wave height (H1/10). 1, which are based on the rms wave heights. It should be evident that care is needed when specifying the type of wave height being considered in the calculations. Air bubbles are produced by the breaking of waves and are carried by turbulence beneath the surface. They are also generated in the wakes of ships where they persist for long periods of time.

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