By John Kington
John Kington's e-book, the 1st of its sort, supplies a definitive account of the elements within the 1780s over Europe in accordance with historic climate maps. those charts are distinctive in forming the earliest sequence of day-by-day synoptic climate maps developed with quantitative instrumental info, and as such symbolize a tremendous contribution to the background of weather.
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Additional resources for The Weather of the 1780s Over Europe
It is therefore particularly gratifying that so many good quantitative instrumental observations were made in the 1780s, that they have survived to the present day, and that we now have the means and opportunity to apply present synoptic methods and techniques to virtually untapped sources of daily weather data. to the geostrophic wind, both in speed and direction, because the interchange of surface and A bi-centenary exercise upper air in the friction layer is at its maximum. Surface winds are then generally about one-third of the geostrophic speed and backed in direction across the isobars by about 30 °.
Geostrophic wind, which approximates to the There are three further advantages in drawing actual wind at a height of about one kilometre daily weather maps at 1400 h. First, it seems to (3300 feet), can be considered to blow parallel to have been common practice amongst many the isobars on mean sea-level pressure charts. Lowest pressure is on the left, and the speed of the eighteenth-century meteorological observers to record the state of the weather, even if only once a wind is inversely proportional to the isobar day, at midday or during the early afternoon.
Third, for the mixing in the friction layer is at its strongest. At that time the surface wind will be brought nearer purpose of classifying weather types and A bi-centenary exercise 22 circulation patterns, it is convenient to have a chart drawn at about midday to represent the general synoptic weather situation for each 24hour period. 1 shows the synoptic coverage available for the 1780s. The stations plotted are divided into three main groups: those belonging to the two main scientific societies on the Continent making concerted efforts to collect daily instrumental meteorological data,- those made by private individuals; and lastly, locations in sea areas and coastal regions typically representing the data obtained from ships' logbooks.