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The improvement of natural intermediates calls for excessive functionality and unique applied sciences. This ebook stories fresh paintings on a few fifteen easy applied sciences in intermediates improvement together with; hydrogenation, fluorination, chlorination, nitration, enzymatic catalysis, hydroxylation, alkylation, carboxylation and the Friedel Crafts response. difficulties and business constraints thinking about commercial improvement are highlighted from a learn point of view and new applied sciences with capability to be used in undefined, quite catalyst-based applied sciences fresh chemical procedures, are defined. A bankruptcy facing experiences on sodium amidure and polymerisation inhibitors is integrated.
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Publication and to the writer NOORDHOFF who made attainable the looks of the second one version and enabled the writer to introduce the above-mentioned modifi cations and additions. Moscow M. A. NAIMARK August 1963 FOREWORD TO the second one SOVIET version during this moment version the preliminary textual content has been labored another time and more advantageous, definite parts were thoroughly rewritten; specifically, bankruptcy VIII has been rewritten in a extra available shape.
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In the acylation of anisole by acetic anhydride, bismuth trichloride appears as a better catalyst than iron and zinc chlorides (Table 4, entries 2,5,6). 20 Table 3. Acylation of anisole by acyl chlorides RCOC1 in the presence of a solvent a Entry Catalyst (% tool) R Solvent Conditions Conversion ( ~o)b 1 BiC13 (5) Me 28 2 3 4 5 BiC13 (10) Bi203 (5) BiC13 (10) Bi203 (5) Me Me Me Me2CH 6 BiC13 (10) Me2CH CH2C12, Et20 (10/1) reflux, 3h MeNO2, 80~ 2h CH2C12, Et20 (10/1) reflux 4h C6H6, reflux 4h 7 Bi203 (5) Me2CH C6H 6, 8 BiC13 (10) Me2CH MeNO2, reflux 3,5h a.
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