The Origin of Clay Minerals in Soils and Weathered Rocks by Bruce B. Velde, Alain Meunier

By Bruce B. Velde, Alain Meunier

Of big relevance in a few fields, this can be a survey of the several methods of soil clay mineral formation and the implications of those procedures about the soil surroundings, specifically plant and mineral. autonomous structures shape soil fabrics. the 1st is the interplay of rocks and water, volatile minerals adjusting to floor stipulations. the second one is the interplay of the biosphere with clays within the higher elements of alteration profiles.

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When the periodicity in the c direction is totally erased by non rational rotations between adjacent layers in a stack, the crystallites are considered to be turbostratic, a totally disordered polytype. Turbostratism is easily detected using X-ray or electron diffraction (Fig. 24b): X-ray diffraction of randomly oriented powders because it lowers the intensity of the hk bands which form broad peaks asymmetrical peaks: for example the (13; 20) peak (Reynolds 1992), electron diffraction on single crystallites which give circles or parts of circles instead of dots as seen in 2D methods of observation.

75°). Bonding between neighboring layers (from tetrahedral sheet to tetrahedral sheet) depend on van der Waals bonds. These bonds have a stable configuration when two neighboring layers show a shift of about a/3 spacing along one of the ditrigonal symmetry directions. 8°). The talc unit formula [Si4O10Mg3(OH)2] points out the absence of an octahedral vacancy. 173 Å. 460 Å. Because of the presence or absence of a vacant site, the structure of the octahedral sheet in pyrophyllite and talc implies different energetic states for OH radicals.

30 CHAPTER 1 · Fundamentals of Clay Mineral Crystal Structure and Physicochemical Properties Concerning the negatively charged sites, for example kaolinite exhibit two chemical functions (Fig. 18): silanol (Si-OH) and aluminol (Al-OH) groups which properties change according the pH of solutions (Stumm 1992): at low pH, aluminol groups fix H+ protons thus yielding Al(III)-H2O groups that are Lewis acid sites; at higher pH, the water molecule is replaced by an (OH)– group. The edge of the tetrahedral layers is marked by O2– ions whose available valency in a bond with Si4+ is compensated for by the bonding of a H+ proton.

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