By M.I. Budyko (Eds.)
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Additional resources for The Earth's Climate: Past and Future
The excess CO 2 is transferred by cold, deep currents to low latitudes, where it enters the atmosphere. This mechanism accounts for approximately 2 x 1016 g yr" of the CO 2 flux between the equator and the North Pole (Bolin and Keeling, 1963). In addition to the CO 2 cycle between the atmosphere and the ocean, there is exchange of CO 2 among the atmosphere-hydrosphere system, 30 2. Evolution of the Atmosphere living organisms, and the lithosphere. This circulation is one of the major mechanisms that maintain life on our planet.
To obtain this estimate it was taken into consideration that a very small quantity of O2 will absorb the most intense portion of ultraviolet radiation. As a result, a screening effect of O2 makes it impossible for a considerable mass of it to accumulate. There are also a number of sources (Byutner, 1961; Brinkman, 1969) with higher estimates for the water vapor photodissociation effect, comparable to the results for photosynthesis. 014 40 2. Evolution of the Atmosphere Most authors of contemporary surveys (Rutten, 1971; Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971; Cloud, 1974) are convinced that only very small concentrations of atmospheric O2 can be maintained by photodissociation, since biological and geological processes in the epoch preceding the appearance of autotrophic plants reveal an almost complete absence of O 2 in the ancient atmosphere.
Of some importance in weather and climate are processes occurring in the stratosphere that are associated in particular with the dissipation and absorption of radiation fluxes by liquid and solid particles of atmospheric aerosols. s of the atmosphere. Weathering of the earth's surface and evaporation of sea-water droplets are the major sources of the atmospheric aerosols. Aerosols are also added to the atmosphere when solid particles are ejected by volcanic eruptions and they are formed from the sulfurous gas that is released into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions and other natural processes.