The Cultural Construction of International Relations by Beate Jahn

By Beate Jahn

The self-discipline of diplomacy bargains with the matter of tradition through defining international politics as a nation of nature, but it ignores the truth that the idea that of the country is itself a cultural product. This e-book uncovers the historical past of this concept, revealing its origins within the eu conquest of the United States, its an important function within the emergence of the Enlightenment international view, and its carrying on with unfavourable results for our makes an attempt to appreciate global politics.

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When ColoÂn set out to sail west, the eyewitness accounts of Asia were outdated. They had been written at the end of the thirteenth and the beginning of the fourteenth centuries when the Mongols `tolerant in religion, desirous of trade, curious about the world outside' made travel safe (Parry, 1981: 6). These travels were subsequently made impossible by the Black Death devastating most of Europe and Asia, by the 36 The Cultural Construction of International Relations Ottoman Turks who converted to Islam and fought against Christendom, and by the Chinese successors to Mongol rule in China who were much more inward looking and much less interested in interaction with the `barbarians' from the West (Parry, 1981: 7).

Hoffman accepts to quite a great extent the structural limitations for morality in the international sphere as it exists and, thus, comes quite close to the Realists. But he does believe that an ought is also necessary; in fact, he defines Liberalism as the belief in a `(limited and reversible) perfectibility of man and society, and particularly in the possibility of devising institutions, based on consent, that will make society more humane and more just, and the citizen's lot better' (1981: 8).

At one extreme of the tradition ± represented by Machiavelli, Bodin and Hobbes ± international theory has denied the existence of any controlling universal rules in relations between states, substituting raison d'eÂtat as the highest norm. Even when the possibility of international moral ties has been granted ± for example, in post-Grotian writings on international law ± these ties have been held to be substantially weaker than 22 The Cultural Construction of International Relations intranational moral bonds precisely because of the absence of supranational political authorities.

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