By Andrea Salimbeti
Carthage grew to become Rome's maximum and such a lot mythical enemy lower than the generalship of Hannibal in battles like Cannae. through the Punic Wars, Carthage's elite mercenary-professional military used to be finally defeated via Roman persistence and Scipio's genius.
Carthage, the port-city in Tunisia first settled through Phoenicians from Tyre, grew to increase a aggressive maritime buying and selling empire everywhere in the Western Mediterranean and past, more and more defended through the simplest army of the interval. within the sixth century BC this got here into disagreement with Greek colonists in Sicily, beginning significant wars that lasted during the fifth and 4th centuries, and concerned a lot interplay with assorted Greek forces. throughout the third century Carthage first clashed with Roman armies, and during 3 wars that raged over Spain, Sicily and Italy the Romans suffered the best defeats of their early heritage (e.g. Lake Trasimene and Cannae, 217 and 216 BC) by the hands of Hamilcar, Hannibal and Hasdrubal Barca, prime multinational armies of North Africans and Europeans.
It was once 202 BC earlier than Hannibal used to be decisively defeated via Scipio Africanus at Zama, and 146 BC earlier than Carthage itself was once eventually captured and destroyed. The victors attempted to wipe the reminiscence of Carthage out of the historic checklist, and whereas Hannibal himself has attracted involved learn, little paintings has been performed on attempting to clarify the nature and reconstruct the looks of Carthaginian armies. The authors of this learn current a cautious synthesis of all on hand literary, archaeological and iconographic proof, within the most modern try and achieve this. Their findings are dramatized in a portfolio of distinct and lively colour plates by means of Giuseppe Rava.
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Additional info for The Carthaginians 6th 2nd Century BC (Elite, Volume 201)
Armour In the earliest period, together with proto-Corinthian helmets, some warriors wore protection for the arms and legs conforming to the equipment of the archaic Greek hoplite. They fought at close range with a spear and short sword, or as heavy mounted infantry. Some Punic stelae depict panoplies as a kind of mannequins covered with weapons, probably representing the war gear of the dead (and perhaps captured enemy trophies). In some stelae round shields are also shown. These images remind us of the panoplies that the Greeks displayed on walls, pilasters or funerary columns.
II, 29, 6). We have some archaeological evidence for these instruments from later periods, as well as contemporary representations: the plate of the Gundestrup cauldron, Etruscan urns, and monumental Hellenistic and Roman reliefs such as the balustrade of the temple of Athena Nikephoros at Pergamum. In the absence of wind instruments, a terrifying noise could be achieved simply by striking the blades of swords against shields, accompanied by singing and wild screaming (Livy, XXXVIII, 17, 3–4; and, of Galician warriors, SI, III, 348).
If we consider that in about 565 BC the Greeks founded Alalia on the coast of Corsica, and that around 535 BC an alliance of the Etruscans and Carthaginians was defeated by the Phocean Greeks in a sea battle in that area, it seems plausible that Mazheus’s expedition had the purpose of confronting a Greek attempt to counterbalance an increasing Carthaginian presence in Sardinia. But who defeated Mazheus? One possibility considered by scholars was an alliance between the existing Phoenician settlements and the indigenous peoples of Sardinia (Sardia), both trying to defend their independence.