Anatomy of the Aeroplane by Darrol Stinton

By Darrol Stinton

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Summarizing for both aspects of specialized performance: attention must be paid to design for the lowest drag; engine economy is of utmost importance; and the structure of the aircraft must be as light as possible. 3 The effect of ‘stretching’ requirements The commonest ways of ‘stretching’ requirements are to increase the payload, or the fuel load, both of which increase the all-up weight. Increased payload involves stretched fuselages: it is significant that few transport aeroplanes designed in recent years have remained unmodified for long in their original form.

Fig. 5 The relative airflow pattern around an aerofoil due to circulation around an induced vortex system. The vector sum across the chord of an aerofoil of biconvex section, such as we have used for illustration, shows an increase in relative velocity of the airstream over the crests of the surfaces. However, the relative velocity is higher over the upper surface than over the lower. If we now apply Eqn (5-1), using the relative velocity at any point, we may calculate the pressure distribution across the chord.

Their origin is shown in Fig. 1 (see also Appendix D). 1 Unaccelerated (rectilinear) flight In its passage through the air an aeroplane sets up a pressure field, due to the reaction of the air over the whole airframe surface. The pressure acts at right angles to the skin contour at any point, but the pressure can be resolved into components normal and tangential to the line of flight, taken in the plane of symmetry of the aircraft. Those normal to the line of flight, when summed, give rise to the resultant lift, L.

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