By Prof. Dr. Erhard M. Winkler (auth.)
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Extra resources for Stone in Architecture: Properties, Durability
A). 1 Rock Pores and Porosity Porosity is the ratio of the volume of pore space to the total volume in percent. The definition by Walker et al. (1969) of porosity for concrete also applies to stone, with the apparent or effective porosity n = Vy/Vb x 100, where n is the total effective porosity, V y the total pore volume determined by the mercury intrusion at up to 1000 atm, and Vb the bulk dry volume of the sample in cm 3 . The average porosity comprises most of the diameters as the sum porosity between all the diameters (Bayly 1968).
Multiplication of dislocations 1. Olslocations start along cleavage StramFig. 8. Stress-strain relationship in compression and tension. The modulus of elasticity, E, is the ratio of stress to strain. The progressive destruction of the test specimens is marked on the diagram. c:: ~ ~. s~ .... J::! ::> Fig. 9. Strength classification of important stones on the basis of uniaxial compressive strength. (After Hawkes and Mellor 1970) where C is the compressive strength of the specimen, W the load in lbs on the specimen at failure, and A the calculated area of the bearing surface in square inches.
Thin section through a slab of crystalline marble, viewed through a petrographic microscope . The interlocking of the mineral grains, about 2 mm in size , give the rock strength. Laas marble, Italy Metamorphic Rocks 27 Fig. 23. Calcite crystal with distinctly visible lines of cleavage , compared with a rhombohedral cleavage piece. Calcite cleavage in three dimensions can cause easy chipping in coarse-grained varieties 1. , some marbles, quartzites, and serpentines known as Verde Antique . 2. Banded: nearly parallel bands of minerals of different texture and color; characteristic of gneisses.