Rock Magnetism: Fundamentals and Frontiers by David J. Dunlop

By David J. Dunlop

Rock Magnetism is a entire therapy of excellent particle magnetism and the magnetic houses of rocks. ranging from atomic magnetism and magnetostatic ideas, the authors clarify why domain names and micromagnetic constructions shape in ferromagnetic crystals and the way those result in magnetic reminiscence within the type of thermal, chemical and different remanent magnetizations. the exceptional balance of those magnetizations, offering a checklist of plate tectonic motions over thousands of years, is defined through thermal activation idea. One bankruptcy is dedicated to sensible assessments of area country and paleomagnetic balance; one other offers with pseudo-single-domain magnetism. the ultimate 4 chapters position magnetism within the context of igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic, and extraterrestrial rocks. This ebook may be of serious price to graduate scholars and researchers in geophysics and geology, relatively in paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, in addition to physicists and electric engineers attracted to fine-particle magnetism and magnetic recording.

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The basic reason is that long-range coupling of atomic moments through spin waves ensures that the local value of M approximates to M elsewhere in the crystal, at least for the easily excited long wavelength modes. We can relate the Weiss and Heisenberg models quantitatively as follows. Suppose all atomic moments fi are aligned, so that M — nfx. 24), Em = -fiOfi\M = -kTc for a particular atom. 33) is Eex = -2zJeS2. Equating these energies, we have The Curie temperature is therefore a direct measure of the strength of the exchange interaction.

3 to give S, L and / for the whole atom. What is surprising is that 3d electrons of neighbouring atoms can have a strong spin-dependent interaction. , Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ in Fe3O4). The 3d rather than the 4s valence electrons must be the key. ) Heisenberg (1928) explained ferromagnetic exchange coupling as analogous to spin-dependent hydrogen bonding. We shall give a simple outline, following Stacey and Banerjee (1974). Consider 3d electrons 1 and 2 associated with atoms a and b. Because the electrons are indistinguishable and we assume the 3d orbitals of a and b overlap significantly, 1 will sometimes be associated with a and sometimes with b: in effect, electrons 1 and 2 can be exchanged between atoms a and b.

0 < / < n - 1: n values m (or itijor':) specifies the component of orbital angular momentum L, in the direction of an applied magnetic field B or H (see Fig. 2). B. -I

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