By Georg Mandl
Rock Joints offers solely with the mechanical genesis of joints in rocks. it really is aimed toward a coherent, severe and understandable presentation of the underlying mechanical approaches of assorted different types of joints and joint structures. specific care is taken to clarify and quantify the function of excessive fluid pressures within the formation of joints. The heritage is an offshoot of the author's classes on "Genesis of Rock Joints" within the division of Rock Mechanics and Tunneling on the Technical college of Graz, Austria.
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Additional info for Rock Joints: The Mechanical Genesis
The formation of the gap is ascribed to the elastic Poisson effect: The aperture of the advancing dyke imposes a horizontal stretching of the material just ahead of the fracture tip; this, in turn, causes a contraction in the vertical direction (Poisson effect), which pulls the lower layer away from the upper layer. The grease then intrudes into the gap along the interface, as sketched in Fig. 11B. A B Fig. 11. Sketch of David Pollard’s experiment in which grease was injected into gelatin perpendicular to a well-lubricated interface.
48 Appendix Appendix to Chapter 3 The instantaneous build-up of pore pressure A part 'p(0) of the total pressure build-up ' pˆ is caused by the undrained isothermal volume change of the rock at the instant of hydrofracturing. It is expressed in terms of the total stress load by the Skempton-Bishop formula (see G. Mandl, FBR, p. 174): 'p(0) B. 31a) and ) is the porosity, and the compression moduli are K, for the bulk volume, Ks for the solid skeleton material, and Kf for the pore fluid. The total stress increments in Eq.
Res. 95, No. B6, pp 8471–8481; reproduced by permission of American Geophysical Union) The dyke-sill mechanism. So far we have considered dyke-type hydrofractures as growing or rising along a straight path unhindered by barriers imposed by changes in the lithology or the in-situ stresses. In dyke-dominated intrusion processes it is frequently observed that the dykes side-step along bedding planes by feeding short sill-type intrusions before continuing their rise through the layered rock. A typical small-scale example are the sidestepping oil dykelets in Fig.