Repair protection and waterproofing of concrete structures by P.H. Perkins

By P.H. Perkins

A wealth of contemporary examine into the continuing deterioration of strengthened concrete constructions has resulted in a assessment of equipment of research and service suggestions. This completely revised and up to date variation brings jointly the elemental elements of this around the world challenge and gives suggestion on how investigations, analysis and consequent remedial paintings will be conducted.

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The most elementary is night-time cooling. With natural ventilation This method makes use of the exposed thermal mass of a building to be cooled by the outside air during the night. Exposed concrete floors are the most effective cooling medium. Vaulted or coffered soffits offer the maximum radiant surface. The cooling stored in the fabric is released as radiant cooling or an air stream directed over surfaces during the day. Vents or windows are automatically opened at night to admit the cool air.

This system comprises long parallel rows of concentrator modules using trough-shaped mirrors. It tracks the sun from east to west by rotating on a linear axis. The trough collector focuses sunlight onto an absorber pipe located along the focal line of the trough. A heat transfer fluid, typically oil heated to 400°C or water to 520°C is transported through the pipes to drive a conventional steam power generator (see Fig. 15). • Solar central receiver or ‘power tower’. In this instance an array of mirrors or ‘heliostats’ is arranged around a central axis, focusing solar radiation onto the focal point of the array.

A receiver situated on a tower at the focal point transfers the solar heat to a power block in the form of a steam generator (Fig. 16). Research is being conducted into ultra-high energy towers which can heat pressurized air to over 1000°C then to be fed into the gas turbines of combined cycle systems. A version produced in the United States by STM Power of Michigan links their ‘SunDish’ tower system to a Stirling engine to produce electricity (see Fig. 17). A criticism of solar thermal plants is that they are only effective in daytime.

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