# Practical Polarography. An Introduction for Chemistry by J. Heyrovský

By J. Heyrovský

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Additional info for Practical Polarography. An Introduction for Chemistry Students

Example text

The recorded curves are thus practically identical to those obtained manually or photographically. The oscillations can be damped and the recorded current represents the exact mean value. The speed of record­ ing can be changed from 10 mm/h to 180 mm/min in sixteen steps. (d) MULTIPURPOSE INSTRUMENTS Recently two types of multipurpose instruments have appeared on the market. I n the first, the polarographic unit is part of a kit that can be assembled when polarographic recording is required. Combination with other units allows other electrochemical measurements to be carried out.

I t is, therefore, always necessary to remove oxygen from the supporting electrolyte with an inert gas before the addition of the sample, if the waves of these reducing agents are to be studied. Generally, the physical removal of oxygen using indifferent gases predominates over chemical reductions, because gases such as nitrogen would not be expected to interact with the solution components. The application of sulphite is suggested in some of the following practical examples because under these conditions it is possible to use the simplest of vessels.

This shape of current-vol­ tage curve, observed for example in Fig. 39, is called a polarographic maximum. According to the shape, sharp or rounded maxima, and according to the type of transport of the depolarizer towards the sur­ face of the electrode, streaming or non-streaming maxima can be dis­ tinguished. When streaming maxima occur on the polarographic curve, a vigorous motion (streaming) of the solution around the mercury drop can be observed with a microscope. This streaming brings more de­ polarizer particles to the surface of the electrode than can be transported by diffusion.