By Kassim T.A., Simoneit B.R.T. (eds.)
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Extra resources for Pollutant-Solid Phase Interactions.. Mechanisms, Chemistry, and Modeling Part E
1 ng/l water at two reference stations in the open sea . Notable concentrations have been measured in Tokyo Bay and in the Strait of Malacca where ship traffic is heavy, whereas concentrations elsewhere in the open sea have remained below the analytical threshold . However, indirect measurements have suggested the presence of TBT at trace amounts in oceanic waters. 4 ng/l in those of the Southern Hemisphere . Moreover, the contamination of marine mammals constitutes an indication of TBT presence in Atlantic and Pacific waters [17, 280–282].
Fig. 15) is considered more sensitive if the PCBs are present as trace constituents. 1 Organic Pollutants in Aqueous-Solid Phase Environments: Types, Analyses and Characterization 37 Fig. 16a–d. T. T. 4 Phthalates Esters of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (phthalic acid esters, PAEs, phthalates) comprise a group of organic compounds used in large quantities by present day society (Fig. 17). 2 ¥ 10 9 kg during 1994 and has increased by roughly 50% during the last 20 years . PAEs are mainly used as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics and may constitute up to 67% of their total weight.
17. Common names and chemical structures of phthalates 1 Organic Pollutants in Aqueous-Solid Phase Environments: Types, Analyses and Characterization 39 Fig. 18 a – c. T. T. Simoneit As a result of the widespread and abundant use of PAEs, they have been widely dispersed and detected in waters and sediments . The toxicity or biological effects of PAEs have been reported [233, 234]; therefore, it is prudent to establish a method for precise analysis, characterization, removal, and/or bioremediation of PAEs from both aqueous and solid phase environments.