Plastic deformation of minerals and rocks by Hans-Rudolf;Mineralogical Society of America;Geochemical

By Hans-Rudolf;Mineralogical Society of America;Geochemical Society Karato Shunichiro;Wenk

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A single hydraulic ram (large arrows) drives 2 wedge-type guide blocks toward one another. The 6 anvils (truncated pyramids on the guide blocks and wedge blocks; only 5 are visible here) are thus driven toward one another, symmetrically compressing a cubic sample assembly (not shown) at the very center. The original DIA consists of symmetric upper and lower guide blocks, four wedgeshaped thrust blocks, and six anvils, as indicated in Figure 9. Four of the anvils are mounted on the inside faces of the thrust blocks and the other two are mounted on the inside central faces of the guide blocks, the square fronts of the anvils thus defining a cubic volume at the center of the apparatus.

Where the inertia term can be neglected, variation in the stress field is restricted to obey the mechanical equilibrium relations: 3 ∂σ ∑ ∂x ijj = 0 j= 1 Three equations, one for each value of i, represent the vector force balance equations. The first of these equations is: ∂σ 11 ∂σ 12 ∂σ 13 + + =0 ∂x1 ∂x 2 ∂x 3 Thus, if there is a variation of the normal stress, σ11, with x1, there must also be a variation of the shear stresses, σ12, in the x2 direction and/or a variation of σ13 in the x3 direction.

The amount of distortion may be different if the elastic Developments in Deformation Experiments at High Pressure 31 Figure 4. X-ray diffraction line on a two-dimensional detector from a sample under stress. The distance from the center to the ring defines the scattering angle, 2θ , and hence the lattice spacing through Bragg’s law. The presence of the stress field distorts the Debye ring from its normally circular shape. The usual stress field is axisymmetric, with σ2 = σ3. The diffraction vector at ψ = 0 lies at an angle θ from the direction of σ1.

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