By K. Fan Chung, John Widdicombe
The final decade has visible impressive advances in our wisdom of cough. this is applicable specially to its easy mechanisms: the categories of airway sensors, the pharmacological receptors on their membranes, the brainstem association of the ‘cough centre’, and the involvement of the cerebral cortex within the sensations and the voluntary keep watch over of cough. This publication indicates that uncomplicated stories are pointing to many in all likelihood worthy techniques to the therapy of cough, in response to knowing the fundamental peripheral receptor mechanisms, the brainstem pathways within the keep an eye on of cough, and the sensitization techniques that could follow in disease.
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Extra info for Pharmacology and therapeutics of cough
1991; Mazzone and Canning 2002; Otake et al. 1992). SARs terminate primarily ipsilateral to their vagal origin, rostral to obex in the lateral and interstitial subnuclei (Bonham and McCrimmon 1990; Davies et al. 1987; Ezure et al. 2002; Kalia and Richter 1985; Kubin et al. 2006). No attempt at differentiating termination sites of RAR, SAR, or C-fiber subtypes has been described. With respect to the central terminations of the afferent nerve subtypes primarily implicated in cough (cough receptors, tracheal/bronchial C-fibers, as opposed to pulmonary C-fibers), very little specific information derived from physiological studies has been published.
Physiological and Pharmacological Properties 27 Widdicombe concluded that tracheal/bronchial RARs and intermediate receptors regulate the coughing initiated by mechanical and chemical (sulfur dioxide) stimulation, respectively. These conclusions have not been refuted in the more than 50 years that have passed since their original publication. In several places throughout the text of these papers, Widdicombe used the term “cough receptor” to describe the vagal afferent nerves that were activated by stimuli that initiated cough (Widdicombe 1954a,c).
2001; McLeod et al. 2001; O’Connell et al. 1994; Pinto et al. 1995; Plevkova et al. 2004; Tatar et al. 1996, 1997; Trevisani et al. 2004; Xiang et al. 2002). These advantages and the careful electrophysiological analyses by Bergren (Bergren 1997, 2001; Bergren et al. 1984; Bergren and Kincaid 1984; Bergren and Myers 1984; Bergren and Sampson 1982), Fox (Fox et al. 1993, 1995), Joad (Bonham et al. 1995, 1996; Joad et al. 1997, 2004; Mutoh et al. 1999), Tsubone (Sano et al. 1992; Tsubone et al. 1991), Undem (Canning et al.