By Alan F. Casy, Robert T. Parfitt (auth.)
The speedily burgeoning learn of the prior twenty years on agonist-antagonist analgesics and opioid receptors makes this exhaustive assessment of opioid anal gesics quite proper and well timed. After an introductory bankruptcy the extra 12 chapters start logically with morphine and congeners (4- epoxymorphinans) and finish with opioid receptors. All relevant chemical different types of centrally appearing analgesics (including endogenous opioid-like elements) and their antagonists in addition to the combined agonist-antagonists are handled completely, even if no longer regularly (and for sturdy cause) in historic (chrono logical) order. A bankruptcy on miscellaneous kinds (atypical constructions for the main half) comprises the benzimidazoles (etonitazene), aminotetralins (dezocine), tetrahydroisoquinolines (methopholine), and so forth. vital elements and correlations of chemistry, pharmacology, and biochemistry are mentioned intensive. Literature citations are a number of. For educators, working towards laboratory scientists, and physicians, this scholarly evaluate via authors good of opioid analgesics versed within the chemistry, pharmacology, and biochemistry can be informative, stimulating, and thought-provoking. Everette L. might clinical collage of Virginia Richmond, VA 23298 v Preface The heritage of opium predates the written observe, even supposing wisdom of its components dates again below two hundred years. Over the centuries its acceptance for the relaxation of soreness has waxed and waned, till at the present time the opiates are well known as first-class analgesics yet with risks that experience impaired their use heavily. there's a transparent desire for a powerful analgesic with minimum results at the respiration facilities and gastrointestinal tract and ideally without dependence liability.
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The swiftly burgeoning learn of the previous 20 years on agonist-antagonist analgesics and opioid receptors makes this exhaustive evaluation of opioid anal gesics quite appropriate and well timed. After an introductory bankruptcy the extra 12 chapters start logically with morphine and congeners (4- epoxymorphinans) and finish with opioid receptors.
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Extra info for Opioid Analgesics: Chemistry and Receptors
RO 0' 56a 56b 56c OMe R=H R = Me R = Ac If - RO - ~ 0/ 3 R = Me 57 R = II OMe H 3-0 and 6-0 Morphine Derivatives The phenolic 3-0H group of morphine may augment through hydrogen bonding the binding of the opiate aromatic pharmacophore to its receptor binding site. Masking of the 3-0 H by conversion to the methylether (codeine) or ethylether (ethylmorphine) groups that are not easily hydrolyzed in vivo gives analgesics with about one tenth the activity of morphine. Although codeine probably exerts an analgesic action in its own right, the controversial view that it requires prior metabolic conversion to morphine has been expressed.
13. Catalytic or strong acid rearrangement of the C-ring double bond in morphine or codeine results in the formation of the ketone, dihydromorphinone (hydromorphone or dilaudid), 77a, or dihydrocodeinone (hydrocodone or dicodid), 78. Both compounds have found clinical application and are several times more active as analgesics and in POC in humans as their respective precursors (see ref. 478 for a reinvestigation of morphinone, the /::/ analog of 77a). Oihydrocodeinone may also be prepared from the hydrolysis of dihydrothebaine (56b).
8 elaborated to the "oripavine" range of analgesics and antagonists but is also capable of transformation into codeine and morphine. Clearly, the value of codeine and morphine as analgesics and the large demand for them requires a steady source of supply that, preferably, does not rely on supplies of opium. Papaver bracteatum(61-64) produces thebaine, but not morphine, as its major alkaloid in roots and dried latex and thus is a potential source of codeine. In addition, perhaps, the Rice(36) synthesis of morphine will offer a practical manufacturing process to therapeutic analgesics.