Opere. Così parlò Zarathustra by Friedrich Nietzsche, a cura di Mazzino Montinari

By Friedrich Nietzsche, a cura di Mazzino Montinari

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The more we expose ourselves to the feared situations, the less we are afraid of them. Our bodies respond to a threatening situation with anxiety. g. ) are regulated by our sympathetic system. This system increases the levels of adrenaline and cortisone in our bodies. It does that to help us be alert and vigilant, and therefore capable of a fast response to the threat (flight, fight, or freeze). The sympathetic system is doing this to ensure our survival and therefore its reaction is immediate.

1 Links between cognitions and anxiety (affect) based on the cognitive model of anxiety (Clark and Beck, 2009) Moreover, the above negative thoughts are linked to counter-productive coping strategies, such as avoidance and safety behaviours. Avoidance prevents us from testing whether our fear is as bad as we think it is, and whether we can cope with the situation or the negative emotion. g. pretending to look for something in the handbag to avoid interaction, or sitting near the exit in a crowded restaurant).

G. g. ‘The fact that I think that “if I show any signs of anxiety, then people will think I am weak”, means that I am weak’). Meta-cognitive beliefs are the beliefs we hold about our own thinking. ’ Meta-cognitive beliefs can be positive or negative. Negative meta-cognitive beliefs can refer to the dangerousness and uncontrollability of thoughts. These types of belief are important because it is suggested that they regulate coping mechanisms and strategies that can influence emotional and behavioural responses (Wells and Matthews, 1994).

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