By Håvard Devold
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Extra resources for Oil and Gas Production Handbook: An Introduction to Oil and Gas Production, Second Edition
If a variable choke is not required, a less expensive positive choke is normally installed on smaller wells. This has a built-in restriction that limits flow when the wing valve is fully open. This is a vertical tree. Christmas trees can also be horizontal, where the master, wing and choke are on a horizontal axis. This reduces the height and may allow easier intervention. Horizontal trees are especially used on subsea wells. 1 Subsea wells Subsea wells are essentially the same as dry completion wells.
The "rich" amine solution contains the absorbed acid gases and is routed into the regenerator (a stripper with a reboiler). The stripped overhead gas from the regenerator is concentrated H2S and CO2. Adsorption relies on the molecules to bind to the surface of certain solids. After a certain time the material must be regenerated to release the gas. Principles used include Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA), Temperature Swing Adsorption (TSA) and Electric Swing Adsorption (ESA) Cryogenic removal uses a turbo expander: A gas turbine is driven by the expanding gas which then cools to below the dew point for the gas to be removed.
An oil heater could be located between the first and second stage separator to reheat the oil/water/gas mixture. This will make it easier to separate out water when initial water cut is high and temperature is low. The heat exchanger is normally a tube/shell type where oil passes though tubes in a heating medium placed inside an outer shell. 4 Third stage separator The final separator here is a two-phase separator, also called a flash drum. The pressure is now reduced to atmospheric pressure of around 100 kPa, so that the last heavy gas components will boil out.