Nerve Cells and Nervous Systems: An Introduction to by A. G. Brown BSc, MB ChB, PhD, FIBiol, FRSE (auth.)

By A. G. Brown BSc, MB ChB, PhD, FIBiol, FRSE (auth.)

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Extra resources for Nerve Cells and Nervous Systems: An Introduction to Neuroscience

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E. the addition over time of several potential changes, can take place (Fig. 10). 9. Response of a passive membrane to a hyperpolarizing square wave of current. The current applied across the membrane resistance leads to a voltage change (A V m). Because of the membrane's capacitance the time course of the voltage change is slowed down, since it takes time to charge and discharge the membrane capacitance. the membrane in response to the passage of ions across the membrane. If a microelectrode is inserted into a nerve cell, or a squid giant axon, and used to pass a rectangular pulse of current across the membrane (Fig.

The potassium channel was suggested to have one gate (n-gate) which opens on depolarization. Much more is now known about the voltagegated channels, especially the sodium channel. 2). The amino acid sequence of the channel has been determined by Noda and Numa and their colleagues (Noda et al. 2). 2 THE VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNEL The voltage-gated sodium channel is a transmembrane protein surrounding a pore in the membr"ne. The diameter of the pore is controlled by the membrane potential. Fig.

Modified from Kuffter et al. 1984, after Hammill et al. seal) CELL ATTACHED \suction applied (D) ~~ U WHOLE CELL RECORDING \~ Electrode pulled away from cell, membrane ruptures \\ \. j/ (E) 'tY Membrane seals OUTSIDE·OUT PATCH 42 Voltage-Gated Potassium and Calcium Channels Rather less is known about the voltage-gated potassium channels than about the sodium channel. Potassium channels have been patch clamped and shown to have a rather higher conductance than sodium channels, but a lower density, in squid axon.

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