By Don Funnell
Mountain Environments and groups explains the heritage actual setting after which explores the environmental and social dimensions of mountain regions.This severe evaluate of the ideas at the moment hired in mountain study, attracts upon a variety of examples from constructed and constructing international locations. The dynamics of mountain lifestyles are defined via either ancient debts of village-based structures and examples of the modern effect of world capital and sustainable improvement recommendations.
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Extra resources for Mountain Environments and Communities (Routledge Physical Environment Series)
These ﬂaws are discussed later. 2 presents the outlines of four stages of the model, which correspond to the four parts of this book, and thereby serves as a ‘map’ of the material presented. 2 The ‘cog model’ and the organisation of the book The cog model Approaches Book section ‘Frozen cogs’ Descriptive: Part 1 Components/variables: • black = known • white = unknown • levels of grey = levels of knowledge Verticality Geo-ecology Systems Deﬁnitions and framework Classiﬁcation Scale 1 ‘Cogs interact and run’ Part 2 1 Mechanisms and interactions Static and descriptive 1950s-70s: Mountain environments The traditional mountain society Dynamics of change Cogs interact, which, involves dynamic evolution Cogs change in size, in ‘visibility’ and linkages New cogs appear New perceptions 1980s-90s: Principal forces for change Dynamic of growth and decline Recognition of uncertainty Part 3 Transformation 1 Demographic 2 Climatic 3 Economic Managing dynamics Cogs framework bounded by bureaucratic pluralism 1990s: Adaptive environmental management Complexity Cultural theory and myths of nature Postmodern concepts Self-reﬂexivity 11 11 11 11 Elements of climate, geomorphology, ecology, society, population and economy Holistic models Part 4 Policy development Himalayan dilemma Conservation Agenda 21 Political structure, pluralism mountain environments (including both physical and socio-economic aspects) are represented by the model.
The dynamics of population growth and associated changes in economic activity. The impacts on land use and the role of formal mechanisms of control over new physical developments (construction). However, in order to understand the contribution of tourism to the local economy and environment, it was necessary to model the impact of external pressures, especially those of an economic nature which would generate and specify the level and nature of demand both for tourism and also for other economic activities.
Local winds, vegetation cover, clouds and relief all play signiﬁcant roles in modifying lapse rates. Continentality The distribution of land and sea in relation to the location of mountains is important. Oceans have the effect of moderating climate. Coastal mountain ranges tend to be wetter and cloudier due to the effect of humid air blowing onshore and being forced up, thus giving rise to precipitation. This creates the differences observed in the Andes between the west-facing coastal slopes and the east-facing inland slopes.