Molecular Diagnosis of Cancer: Methods and Protocols 2nd by Joseph E. Roulston, John M. S. Bartlett

By Joseph E. Roulston, John M. S. Bartlett

A various selection of with no trouble reproducible tools to be used in melanoma detection. Highlights comprise FISH-based methodologies at the moment utilized in the prognosis of sturdy tumors, the molecular analysis of genetic abnormalities by way of DNA array technologies-including sequence-specific oligonucleotide arrays and CGH arrays-and methodologies directed on the detection of epigenetic occasions and at quantitative gene expression. The authors observe those novel diagnostic systems to a vast variety of circumstances taken from cytology, stable tumor pathology, hematology, and infrequent phone detection, paying targeted awareness to capability destiny advancements and the sensible difficulties of facing quality controls and accuracy.

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Lead time generated by screening, or the period from detection while the woman is still asymptomatic until the appearance of clinical symptoms, which would permit conventional diagnosis, may increase the apparent survival without, in fact, the individual having benefited from screening. In such circumstances, the patient has to live longer with the knowledge of the disease. 2. Length Bias A series of cases diagnosed at screening will be atypical of those arising clinically, because it will contain a disproportionate number of patients with slowly developing tumors, probably with a better prognosis.

A diagram of a cell line standard for HER-2/neu, showing the names of the four-cell lines, the position of the cell lines in the paraffin section mounted on a glass slide, and the expected and most appropriate results (in parentheses) following IHC assay and evaluation with the CTA scoring system. (Reprinted from ref. ) generally approved guidelines on formalin fixation and processing, this may not be important. The fact that different authors have used the same cell lines but grown at different sites and fixed using varying fixation regimes and yet still report similar HER-2/neu overexpression levels suggest that this is the case (50,56,57).

By and large, cancer prevalence is too low in the population to permit effective screening even if the financial and ethical constraints could be overcome. In ovarian cancer, there is, therefore, a large amount of current research directed at the identification of possible high-risk groups— the so-called cancer families—in which prevalence is significantly higher than in the population at large because of genetic predisposition. The use of tumor markers to monitor disease progress or remission, to track therapeutic efficacy, or to give a lead time to relapse are much more successful.

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