By Michael Gaft, Renata Reisfeld, Gerard Panczer
Luminescence Spectroscopy of Minerals and fabrics provides an summary of the overall techniques in luminescence spectroscopy in addition to experimental equipment and their interpretation. particular emphasis is laid at the fluorescence lifetime and the choice of time-resolved spectra. this technique permits the publicity of recent luminescence in minerals formerly hidden via extra in depth facilities. experts within the fields of strong nation physics, chemistry and spectroscopy will discover a wealth of recent info during this precise book.
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Additional info for Modern Luminescence Spectroscopy of Minerals and Materials
The intensity is then expressed in arbitrary units. Deconvolution is made with a least squares ﬁtting algorithm that minimizes the difference between the experimental spectrum and the sum of the Gaussian curves. Based on the presumed band numbers and wavelengths, iterative calculations give the band positions that correspond to the best ﬁt between the spectrum and the sum of calculated bands. The usual procedure is to start with one or Time-Resolved Luminescence Spectroscopy 39 two bands and to increase the band numbers until the deconvolution does not signiﬁcantly improve.
The lowest of these zones is called the conductivity band (CB). The energy interval between the valence zone and conductivity zone is called the forbidden zone and designated as Eg . With small dimensions of the forbidden band the electron transfer of the impurity or of the main substance to the conduction band may take place. The most important luminescent minerals of this kind are ZnS and silver bromides. With the interband spacing of 3–4 eV a UV irradiation with a wavelength of less than 300 nm has enough energy to detach electrons and transfer them from the ﬁlled valence band into an empty conduction Radiative Return to the Ground State – Luminescence 33 band.
Xy, xz, yz). ∆o or alternatively 10Dq denotes the extent to which these two sets of orbitals are split. The tetrahedral symmetry can be derived from a cubic symmetry where only four of the eight corners are occupied by point charges. In such a situation, it is the xy, yz, xz orbitals that are destabilized as they point towards the incoming point charges, while x2 − y2 and z2 are stabilized. The crystal ﬁeld splitting in a tetrahedral symmetry is intrinsically 22 Theoretical Background smaller than in the octahedral symmetry as there are only four ligands (instead of six ligands in the octahedral symmetry) interacting with the transition metal ion (Fig.