Meteorology Today: Introduction to Weather, Climate, and the by C. Donald Ahrens

By C. Donald Ahrens

Grounded within the medical process, this enticing and hugely visible textual content indicates scholars the right way to notice, calculate, and synthesize info as budding scientists, systematically examining meteorological ideas and matters. particular discussions middle on serious climate platforms, corresponding to tornadoes, thunderstorms, and hurricanes, in addition to daily components, reminiscent of wind, precipitation, condensation, lots and fronts, and the seasons. occasions and concerns dominating today’s information cycles additionally obtain thorough cognizance, and contain research of Superstorm Sandy, the Oklahoma tornadoes, contemporary findings from the united states nationwide weather evaluate and the Intergovernmental Panel on weather swap, and extra.

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A few, however, are electrically charged, having lost or gained electrons. These charged atoms and molecules are called ions. An average breath of fresh air contains a tremendous number of molecules. With every deep breath, trillions of molecules from the atmosphere enter your body. Some of these inhaled gases become a part of you, and others are exhaled. * Near sea level, there are roughly ten thousand million million million (1022)* air molecules in a liter. So, 1 breath of air 5 1022 molecules We can appreciate how large this number is when we compare it to the number of stars in the universe.

2 O 14 FIGURE 2 The Martian sky and landscape photographed by the Spirit Rover during April 2005. amounts of methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3). A prominent feature on Jupiter is the Great Red Spot—a huge atmospheric storm about three times larger than Earth—that spins counterclockwise in Jupiter’s southern hemisphere (see Fig. 3). Large white ovals near the Great Red Spot are similar but smaller storm systems. Unlike Earth’s weather machine, which is driven by the sun, Jupiter’s massive swirling clouds appear to be driven by a collapsing core of hot hydrogen.

Because of its thin, cold atmosphere, there is no liquid water on Mars and virtually no cloud cover—only a barren, desert-like landscape (see Fig. 2). In addition, this thin atmosphere produces an average surface air pressure of only about 7 mb, which is less than one-hundredth of that experienced at the surface of Earth. Such a pressure on Earth would be observed above the surface at an altitude near 35 km (22 mi). Occasionally, huge dust storms develop near the Martian surface. Such storms may be accompanied by winds of several hundreds of kilometers per hour.

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