Mesopotamia (Ancient Civilizations) (Britannica Educational by Sherman Hollar

By Sherman Hollar

During this quantity you'll find out about 4 significant Mesopotamian civilizations. the 1st was once Sumer, which started approximately 3300 BC. The Sumerians contributed to the advance of the calendar, metalworking, the wheeled cart, and the potter's wheel. in addition they created the vintage Epic of Gilgamesh. the second one nice empire you'll find out about is Babylonia. The Babylonians further to the information of astronomy, arithmetic, and legislation. In approximately 1400 BC the Assyrians of the north freed themselves from Babylon's regulate. Fierce and warlike, they have been the 1st to exploit horses as cavalry. They equipped roads and arranged a mail carrier for communique. regardless of their ferocity, their artwork and structure have been superb. The Assyrians additionally preserved cuneiform texts in nice libraries. subsequent, the Chaldeans took over and rebuilt Babylon right into a wealthy and beautiful urban beginning round 606 BC. An instance of the city's beauties used to be the striking Gardens of Babylon, an old ask yourself of the area. The Chaldeans additionally made development in astronomy and math. yet in 539 BC, they grew to become part of the Persian Empire.

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Cuneiform thus passed successively from one people to another. The Akkadians were succeeded by the Babylonians, and they by the Assyrians. The expansion of cuneiform writing outside Mesopotamia began during the 3rd millennium bc, when the country of Elam, in what is now southwestern Iran, adopted the system. The Hurrians of northern Mesopotamia adopted Akkadian cuneiform 36 suMerIan cIvIlIzatIon The Flood Tablet, 11th cuneiform tablet in a series relating the Gilgamesh epic, from Nineveh, 7th century Bc; in the British Museum, London.

Ascent was by an exterior triple stairway or by a spiral ramp, but for almost half of the known ziggurats, no means of ascent has been discovered. The sloping sides and terraces were often landscaped with trees and shrubs. The best-preserved ziggurat is at Ur (modern Tall al-Muqayyar, Iraq). The largest, at Chogha¯ Zanbı¯l in Elam (now in southwestern Iran), is 335 feet (102 meters) square and 80 feet (24 meters) high and stands at less than half its estimated original height. A ziggurat, apparently of great antiquity, is located at Tepe Sialk in modern Ka¯sha¯n, Iran.

Unintended manslaughter was punished by a fine. Willful murder was not mentioned. Carelessness and neglect in the performance of work was severely punished. In general, the penalties prescribed were an improvement over the brutality of previous law. This failure was a primary reason for the rapid deterioration of his empire after his death. Hammurabi’s accomplishments are believed by historians to be exaggerated. This is partly because of the fame he gained when his law code was discovered. His lasting achievement was to shift the main theater of Mesopotamian history northward, where it remained for 1,000 years.

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