Marine Toxins. Origin, Structure, and Molecular Pharmacology by Sherwood Hall

By Sherwood Hall

content material: Pharmacology of marine pollution : results on membrane channels / Gary Strichartz and Neil fortress --
Biosynthesis of crimson tide pollution / Yuzuru Shimizu, Sandeep Gupta, and Hong-Nong Chou --
The saxitoxins : assets, chemistry, and pharmacology / Sherwood corridor, Gary Strichartz, E. Moczydlowski, A. Ravindran, and P.B. Reichardt --
High-performance liquid chromatographic technique utilized to paralytic shellfish poisoning study / John J. Sullivan --
A bacterial resource of tetrodotoxins and saxitoxins / Mark L. Tamplin --
common pollutants from cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) / Wayne W. Carmichael, Nik A. Mahmood, and Edward G. Hyde --
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor functionality studied with man made (+)-anatoxin-a and derivatives / K.L. Swanson, H. Rapoport, R.S. Aronstam, and E.X. Albuquerque --
Polyether pollution thinking about seafood poisoning / Takeshi Yasumoto and Michio Murata --
Ca-dependent excitatory results of maitotoxin on gentle and cardiac muscle / Yasushi Ohizumi and Masaki Kobayashi --
X-ray crystallographic experiences of marine pollution / Gregory D. Van Duyne --
Brevetoxins : precise activators of voltage-sensitive sodium channels / Vera L. coach, Richard A. Edwards, Alina M. Szmant, Adam M. Stuart, Thomas J. Mende, and Daniel G. Baden --
Detection, metabolism, and pathophysiology of brevetoxins / Mark A. Poli, Charles B. Templeton, Judith G. velocity, and Harry B. Hines --
The molecular foundation of ciguatoxin motion / Christian Frelin, Monique Durand-Clément, Jean-Noël Bidard, and Michel Lazdunski --
A standpoint on palytoxin / Gary Strichartz --
Mechanism of palytoxin motion at the epidermal development issue receptor / Elizabeth V. Wattenberg, Hirota Fujiki, and Marsha wealthy Rosner --
Mechanism of pharmacological motion of palytoxin / Yasushi Ohizumi --
creation of antibodies and improvement of a radioimmunoassay for palytoxin / Lawrence Levine, Hirota Fujiki, Hilda B. Gjika, and Helen Van Vunakis --
New tumor promoters from marine normal items / Hirota Fujiki, Masami Suganuma, Hiroko Suguri, Shigeru Yoshizawa, Kanji Takagi, Michie Nakayasu, Makoto Ojika, Kiyoyuki Yamada, Takeshi Yasumoto, Richard E. Moore, and Takashi Sugimura --
Pharmacological and toxicological stories of palytoxin / James A. Vick and Joseph Wiles --
Conotoxins : designated peptide ligands from snail venoms / Baldomero M. Olivera, David R. Hillyard, Jean Rivier, Scott Woodward, William R. grey, Gloria Corpuz, and Lourdes J. Cruz --
Sea anemone polypeptide pollution affecting sodium channels : preliminary structure-activity investigations / William R. Kem, Michael W. Pennington, and Ben M. Dunn --
answer constitution of sea anemone pollutants by means of NMR spectroscopy / N. Vasant Kumar, Joseph H.B. Pease, Hugues Schweitz, and David E. Wemmer --
Cytolytic peptides of sea anemones / Alan W. Bernheimer --
pollution from marine invertebrates / M.J.A. Walker and V.L. Masuda --
a few typical jellyfish pollutants / Joseph W. Burnett --
Neurotoxins from sea snake and different vertebrate venoms / Anthony T. Tu --
starting place, chemistry, and mechanisms of motion of a repellent, presynaptic excitatory, ionophore polypeptide / P. Lazarovici, N. Primor, J. Gennaro, J. Fox, Y. Shai, P.I. Lelkes, C.G. Caratsch, G. Raghunathan, H.R. man, Y.L. Shih, and C. Edwards.

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K n o w n and implied structures for other natural saxitoxin derivatives. T h e structure o f decarbamoylsaxitoxin, 13, is well established. C o m p o u n d s 14, 15, 16, and 19 have been isolated and characterized to varying degrees. C o m p o u n d s 17, 18, and 20—24 have not yet been reported, but are anticipated as combinations o f k n o w n variations. ; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1990. MARINE TOXINS: ORIGIN, STRUCTURE, AND MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY 21-SCL 11-OSCL STX (D • • .

W h i l e it is by n o means practical for general use, it is quite specific for sodium channel blockers, offers a moderate degree o f resolution among them, is quantitative, requires n o sample cleanup, and for the majority o f the saxitoxins is the most sensitive detection method available. U n f o r tunately, it is not well suited to complex mixtures and requires expensive, dedicated equipment, and about two days effort by a qualified investigator to obtain a result. In summary, analyses for the saxitoxins provide information that, i n principle, is clear and readily interpreted while the design and interpretation o f assays for the saxitoxins is complicated by the multiplicity o f the toxins, their differing properties, and the variations i n toxin composition that w i l l be encountered.

A c c o u n t s have recently appeared describing bacteria, isolated from toxic dinoflagellates, that produce the saxitoxins, although the levels reported so far are quite l o w (55). Thus, w h i l e dinoflagellates are clearly the proximate source o f the saxitoxins that accumulate to high levels i n filter-feeders, they may not be the sole o r ultimate source o f the saxitoxins i n the marine environment. ) T h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f the saxitoxins, the relative p r o p o r t i o n o f the various derivatives, found i n Alexandrium differs from strain to strain and appears to be a useful, fairly conservative characteristic for distinguishing among strains and among the populations from which they are obtained.

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