By Jerry Scutts
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One alternative way to solve these equations could be the LES approach. Nevertheless, the application of LES still presents a number of issues such as: excessive computational effort at high Reynolds number, difficulties in specifying initial and boundary conditions, and the necessity to perform 3D time dependant simulations for all applications. The other solution is to average the equations (RANS) and to use a turbulence model as a set of relations and equations to determine the unknown turbulent correlations that have arisen from the averaging process.
J. D. Butler, «KIVA II : a computer program for chemically reactive flows with sprays », Los Alamos National Laboratory Report LA-11560-MS - 1989 Sulsky, D. L. Schreyer, «the Particle-in-cell method as a natural impact algorithm », SandiaNational laboratories, contract N° AC-1801, 1993. D. K. , B. U. Brackbill, « on particle grid interpolation in particle in cell methods and application to a model flame problem » J. Comp. , vol 109, pp 37-52, 1993. , « a particle fluid numerical model for liquid sprays », J.
The consequence is a high turbulence level all around the spray, especially in the vicinity of the spark plug, which is suitable for the ignition. Figure 15 illustrates the evolution of the A/F ratio distribution during the stratified injection process. It shows that the spark is located at the edge of the spray. Moreover, the spray progresses very quickly, therefore the timing of the combustion has to be precisely defined, in order to avoid misfires. All these examples show the utility of CFD simulations based on turbulence modelling, to the design in automotive industry.