By Richard A. Harvey PhD
Lippincott's Illustrated reports: Pharmacology, Fourth version allows fast assessment and assimilation of enormous quantities of advanced information regarding the necessities of clinical pharmacology. transparent, sequential photos of mechanisms of motion truly convey scholars how medicinal drugs paintings, rather than simply telling them. As in past variations, the e-book positive aspects an summary structure, over 500 full-color illustrations, cross-references to different volumes within the sequence, and over one hundred twenty five evaluate questions. content material has been completely up-to-date, and a brand new bankruptcy covers toxicology. New to this version can be a significant other site containing the entire illustrations, absolutely searchable textual content, and an interactive query financial institution.
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Extra resources for Pharmacology, 4th Edition (Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews)
II. Chemistry of Receptors and Ligands Interaction of receptors with ligands involves the formation of chemical bonds, most commonly electrostatic and 2 of 18 11/8/2008 11:37 AM Ovid: Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology file:///F:/DOWNLOADS%20FIREFOX/LIRP4/Lippincott%27s%20Illustr... hydrogen bonds, as well as weak interactions involving van der Waals forces. These bonds are important in determining the selectivity of receptors, because the strength of these noncovalent bonds is related inversely to the distance between the interacting atoms.
Therefore, a â€œloading doseâ€ of drug can be injected as a single dose to achieve the desired plasma level rapidly, followed by an infusion to maintain the steady state (maintenance dose). In general, the loading dose can be calculated as B. Kinetics of fixed-dose/fixed-time-interval regimens Administration of a drug by fixed doses rather than by continuous infusion is often more convenient. However, fixed doses, given at fixed-time intervals, result in time-dependent fluctuations in the circulating level of drug.
The drug, if uncharged, may diffuse out of the nephric lumen, back into the systemic circulation. Manipulating the pH of the urine to increase the ionized form of the drug in the lumen may be used to minimize the amount of back-diffusion, and hence, increase the clearance of an undesirable drug. As a general rule, weak acids can be eliminated by alkalinization of the urine, whereas elimination of weak bases may be increased by acidification of the urine. â€ For example, a patient presenting with phenobarbital (weak acid) overdose can be given bicarbonate, which alkalinizes the urine and keeps the drug ionized, thereby decreasing its reabsorption.