By Paul Hoffman, Herman Friedman, Mauro Bendinelli
The quantity brings jointly the entire most recent examine in this pathogen, the curiosity during which is swiftly turning out to be. Legionella pneumophila is an rising human pathogen that is living in traditional environments as a parasite of freshwater. there were significant new advancements during this box, together with the ebook of 3 entire genome sequences and the invention of a developmental cycle and novel cyst-like hugely infectious shape.
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Additional resources for Legionella Pneumophila: Pathogenesis and Immunity (Infectious Agents and Pathogenesis)
In standard BCYE agar, iron is added in the form of ferric pyrophosphate, although ferric chloride, ferric nitrate, and ferrous sulfate can also be used. Upon incubation with 55FeCl3, L. pneumophila uptakes significant amounts of radiolabeled iron in an energy-dependent, protease-resistant process (Johnson et al, 1991). L. pneumophila also binds and uses hemin as a source of iron (O’Connell et al, 1996). As in other bacteria, L. pneumophila requires iron as a cofactor in enzymes, such as a superoxide dismutase and aconitase (Mengaud and Horwitz, 1993).
Early Negative Findings It was reported in 1983 that L. pneumophila does not make siderophores (Reeves et al, 1983). This conclusion was based largely on results from Arnow and Csáky assays, which detect catecholate and hydroxamate structures, respectively. Years later, the issue of Legionella siderophores was revisited using the CAS assay, which detects iron chelators independently of structure (Goldoni et al, 1991). CAS reactivity was detected in statically grown L. pneumophila cultures, suggesting the existence of a non-catecholate, non-hydroxamate siderophore.
Cianciotto coli Fur. Its repressive activity is, as expected, highest in legionellae grown in iron-rich media (Hickey and Cianciotto, 1994, 1997). L. pneumophila Fur has an amino acid identity of over 54% and a similarity of over 72% to Fur from E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and others (Hickey and Cianciotto, 1994). The promoter region of L. pneumophila fur contains sequences homologous to the Fur-binding site, suggesting that fur is auto-regulated in Legionella. The fur gene is conserved among Legionella species (Hickey and Cianciotto, 1994).