By Michael L. Herriman, Barbara Burnaby
This article presents an research of present guidelines on language(s) within the united states, Canada, Britain, New Zealand, South Africa and Australia. The linguistic history of every nation is tested in addition to the prestige of languages, as made up our minds via statute or perform. results for all languages and language schooling also are analyzed.
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Extra resources for Language policies in English-dominant countries: six case studies
Since English clearly is the dominant language in the USA, declaring it official can only serve to repress minorities' rights. The more-than-linguistic issues entailed have been made clearer by the 1994 vote in California to deny schooling and social services altogether to illegal immigrants. Explicit or implicit policies regarding the status of the official or standard language, by their mere existence, affect the viability and stability of other languages used in the community. In all the New World countries covered in this book, there is a complex of community languages which, in various ways, compete for recognition.
Access to social goods depends to some extent on the person's pleading his or her rights in that one is expected to know one's rights (in much the same way as one is expected to know the law). This presents a conundrum when access to knowledge about those rights is couched only in the official/standard language. The lack of access to the language of the civil service, the media, business and so on is, therefore, a barrier to participation in civic life defended by a circular argument. Remedies to redress such denial of access to people's rights can focus on individual or group rights or both; but this distinction alone can create civil and social divisions as seen in the Canadian case.
The policy (status planning) issue concerns the consequences of developing an explicit policy to replace that which is implicit in practice. A central policy act is to declare one or more languages as official language(s). e. it did not solve the problem), but has generated also renewed and new claims for similar status rights for other languages. Thus, the Canadian move has implicated language in the greater question of struggles for political rights. The official language of a country, whether declared or not, can also engender fears about access to the standard language among speakers of community and indigenous languages and even dialects, such that a need for policy can arise.