Introduction to Geochemistry by Gil Michard Claude-Jean Allegre

By Gil Michard Claude-Jean Allegre

TO GEOCHEMISTRY by means of CLAUDE-JEAN ALLEGRE division of Earth Sciences, collage of Paris 7 and GIL MICHARD division of Chemistry, collage of Paris 7 D, REIDEL PUBLISHING corporation DORDRECHT-HOLLAND / BOSTON-U. S. A. creation A l. a. GEOCHIMIE First released by means of Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1973 Translated/rom the French by means of Robert N. Varney Library of Congress Catalog Card quantity 74-83871 e-ISBN -13: 978-94 -010-2261-3 ISBN -13: 978-90-277-0498-6 DOl: 10. 1007/978-94-010-2261-3 released by means of D. Reidel Publishing corporation, P. O. field 17, Dordrecht, Holland bought and disbursed within the U. S. A. , Canada, and Mexico by means of D. Reidel Publishing corporation, Inc. 306 Dartmouth road, Boston, Mass. 02116, U. S. A. All Rights Reserved Copyright © 1974 through D. Reidel Publishing corporation, Dordrecht, Holland No a part of this publication might be reproduced in any shape, by way of print, photoprint, microfilm, or the other potential, with no written permission from the writer desk OF CONTENTS PREFACE IX PREFACE by means of THE TRANSLATOR XI bankruptcy 1 / THE EARTH AS A CHEMICAL method 1 1. 1. The Earth in the sun approach 1 1. 2. the size of Time 1 1. three. the general Chemical Composition of the Earth, the sun approach, and the Universe 2 1. four. chemicals within the sun procedure: Cosmological Minerals five 1. four. 1. basic Molecules 6 1. four. 2. uncomplicated Solids 6 1. four. three. Silicates 6 1. four. four. Carbon Polymers 6 1. four. five. Fe-Ni Alloys 6 1. 5.

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I' ..... . Continent . ," . , , :)": . ' Pacific ocean .. ,' ' ",' ' , Fig. ISa. ' . -,----..... ' . " ~ Tholeitic " Basalt Zone C2J High AI. -1 Alkali Basalt Zone Position oftholeites and alkaline basalts in a geodynamic island arc system. (Japan arc system~ Cont inent Ocean .. K 2 0 increase with the arrow ),: Alkali I 4baSall; 1:: ~ I High AI . basalis I Tholeilic : basalis I I I( I I I j I I ~ I I I I Volcanic front Benioff surface /' ",- Fig. ISb. Cross section of Japan Island showing the zoning in Basalt Type distribution.

11. /J' ............ -- ______ -- ~ . Phase diagram for leucite-potash feldspar-quartz at low pressure. phase diagrams. In general an increase in 'dry' total pressure enlarges the area where solids are stabile, whereas an increase in fluid (H 2 0) pressure enlarges the area of the liquid. Eutectic compositions may vary greatly with total and/or fluid pressure often in non simple fashion. Binary systems show many geometrical relations that can also vary with pressure. Certainly natural rock systems cannot be reduced to binary and are complex multi component systems.

10-4 aIm Relation between pH and alkalinity at constant pC0 2 . pH) \ \ RB(F/kg) \ \ \ \ \ I Rs \ \ \ 10- 3 \ '" 2 { f(Rs,pH) f (T, pH) Fig. 2. -/ " 7 =0 =0 I I I L CO 2 = 2,5 8 9 I IT 10 x 10-3 M/kg Relation between pH and alkalinity at constant EC0 2 . pH 44 INTRODUCTION TO GEOCHEMISTRY dissociation of the various ionized species are limited by the total constant quantity of dissolved carbonates. ) Under these conditions, the relationship between alkalinity and pH as well as that between buffering power and pH (Figure 3-2) has a very different appearance.

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