Introduction to Electronic Engineering - V. Vodovozov [n.b.

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Example text

One of the leads of this device was designated as an emitter, the corresponding diode was biased in the forward direction, the other was a collector and its diode was biased in the reverse direction. Power amplification was obtained by virtue of the fact that the few variations in the base current caused a large variation in the emitter-collector current. , a difficulty to reproduce the same electrical qualities in close tolerance for mass production; low amplification, especially at high frequencies.

A difficulty to reproduce the same electrical qualities in close tolerance for mass production; low amplification, especially at high frequencies. Intensive research has been done to diminish or remove these drawbacks. As a result, developers have produced semiconductor materials that are not so sensitive to temperature, inexpensive, operate at high frequencies, have low power dissipation, and internal noise of the transistor. A device, which is more stable both mechanically and electrically, has been constructed by forming junctions rather than point contacts.

The unique operating curve of the tunnel diode is a result of the heavy doping used in the manufacturing of the diode. The tunnel diode is doped about one thousand times as heavily as a standard pn-junction diode. This type of a diode exhibits a negative resistance. This means that a decrease in voltage produces an increase in current (Fig. 15). The negative resistance is useful in high-frequency circuits called oscillators, which create the sinusoidal signals. Optoelectronics. Fig. 16,a displays a light-emitting diode (LED).

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