Image-Based Multilevel Biomechanical Modeling for by Yunhua Luo

By Yunhua Luo

Fall-induced hip fracture is a scourge future health hazard between aged humans. This e-book offers an image-based multilevel modeling method of knowing the biomechanics excited about fall-induced hip fracture. by means of hierarchically integrating a body-level dynamics version, a femur-level finite aspect version, and a neighborhood bone failure version, the biomechanics technique is ready to simulate all phases in sideways falls and to include all biomechanical variables affecting hip fracture. This publication comes in handy for clinicians to correctly assessment fracture hazard, for biomechanical engineers to nearly try hip protecting units, and for biomedical scholars to benefit image-based biomechanical modeling techniques.

This booklet additionally covers:

  • Biomechanical viewing on bone composition, bone home improvement, and bone strength
  • Bone imaging and data captured for developing biomechanical models
  • Bone mechanical checking out and mechanical homes required for biomechanical modeling

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Image-Based Multilevel Biomechanical Modeling for Fall-Induced Hip Fracture

Fall-induced hip fracture is a scourge healthiness probability between aged humans. This booklet provides an image-based multilevel modeling method of realizing the biomechanics excited by fall-induced hip fracture. by way of hierarchically integrating a body-level dynamics version, a femur-level finite point version, and a neighborhood bone failure version, the biomechanics process is ready to simulate all phases in sideways falls and to include all biomechanical variables affecting hip fracture.

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Extra info for Image-Based Multilevel Biomechanical Modeling for Fall-Induced Hip Fracture

Example text

If viewed from a top-to-down order, a femur bone has structures at five hierarchical levels [200]: • Macrostructure (10 3 –10 1 m): cortical and trabecular bone. • Microstructure (10–50 m): osteons with Haversian systems. • Sub-microstructure (3–7 m): lamellae. 3 Challenges in Characterizing Bone Property-Density Relationships 41 • Nanostructure (0:5–2 nm): collagen fibre assemblies of collagen fibrils. • Sub-nanostructure (1 nm): bone mineral crystals, collagen molecules and noncollagenous proteins.

1, each stage has different biomechanical phenomena and variables involved, and it is related to different body level, which must be dealt with by different mechanical principles and models. 2. The fall risk model evaluates the variables and risk factors involved in fall initiation and estimates the risk of fall for the concerned subject. Fall initiation is decided by many factors [208, 209], which are related to both of the subject’s physical and mental health status.

The obtained image is a pixel-by-pixel map of attenuation coefficients over the cross-section. The mathematical base of computed tomography was laid down by J. Radon in 1917 [175]. N. Hounsfield [176]. 2 Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) 21 Fig. 11 Projection and back projection. (a) Projection. e. projection and back projection, can still be explained using the simplified model shown in Fig. 11 [177]. In the model, a cross-section of material consists of only four blocks of the same sizes (1 1) materials but different linear attenuation coefficients.

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