Ice Microdynamics by Pao K. Wang

By Pao K. Wang

Atmospheric ice debris play an important roles in cloud and typhoon dynamics, atmospheric chemistry, climatological approaches, and different atmospheric procedures. Ice Microdynamics introduces the undemanding physics and dynamics of atmospheric ice debris in clouds; next sections clarify their formation from water vapor, why ice crystal form and focus in cirrus clouds impact the heating of air, and describe how ice crystals cleanse the ambience via scavenging aerosol particles.Pao Wang's lucid writing variety will entice atmospheric scientists, climatologists, and meteorologists with an curiosity in realizing the function of ice debris within the surroundings of our planet.

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4 . T h e nonuniform grids u s e d for numerically s o l v i n g the N a v i e r - S t o k e s equations for flow past a columnar i c e crystal: (a) broadside v i e w ; (b) e n d view. 3. HYDRODYNAMICS OF SMALL ICE PARTICLES 51 FIG. 4. Continued. where V" is the velocity solved at time step n and Ar is the time increment. 7) At (see, for example, Peyret and Taylor, 1983). 8) A scheme of quadratic upstream interpolation for convective kinematics (QUICK) is used here (Leonard, 1979, 1983; Freitas et al, 1985; Davis, 1984).

19), while a, C, and A are parameter a and C have dimensions of length whereas A, is a dimensionles s number; C is one-half the length from the apex to the bottom along the z-axis, the center point being defined as the origin O, and a is defined in the following paragraph . l(>) is the equation of an ellipse whose semi-axes in the x and z directions are a and C, respectively. Therefore, Eq. 25) can be thought of as an ellipse modulated FIG. 19. Definitions of the coordinate system and various quantities appearing in Eq.

MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTIONS OF ICE PARTICLE SIZE AND SHAPE 29 where m = 2 and « = 1 here. 16. The widths of the branches are controlled by b and b' in Eq. 22). For example, if we change the values of ^ = ^’ = 2 in Eq. 17b. In both examples , the branches have relatively flat end surfaces that are close to the actual samples . However, there are cases where the end surfaces are capped plates that are not simulated here. The shape of each branch is not hexagonal , in contrast to real ice bullets. It is unclear at this point whether this really matters much in terms of the bulk radiative properties.

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