Hypersomnia: An Issue of Sleep Medicine Clinics by Alon Y. Avidan

By Alon Y. Avidan

Over the top Sleepiness, or hypersomnia, is without doubt one of the most typical sleep complaints.  during this factor, Dr. Alon Avidan of UCLA brings jointly a collection of articles that supply a very up-to-date assessment of hypersomnia, from neurophysiology of sleepiness and wakefulness to caliber of lifestyles matters and public health.  the main target of the problem is the analysis and therapy of hypersomnia, together with target and subjective size of sleepness, biomarkers of sleepiness, narcolepsy, and hypersomnia in scientific, neurological and psyhchiatric comorbidities. over the top sleepiness between particular sufferer populations (children, aged) and periodic hypersomnia are discussed.  Pharmacotherapy of hypersomnia is given detailed recognition, as are behavioural remedies.

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Extra info for Hypersomnia: An Issue of Sleep Medicine Clinics

Example text

Both disorders result in recurrent episodes of EDS. The better characterized of the 2 is KLS. This disorder is distinguished by the presence of recurring episodes of excessive sleepiness with associated cognitive (impaired memory, attention, and concentration, as well as apathy and hallucinations) and behavioral (hyperphagia, hypersexuality, aggressiveness, delusions, and irritability) abnormalities that last up to several weeks at a time and recur at least once during the year (Box 7). The symptoms are typically triggered by an event such as a flulike illness or other infection, sleep deprivation, alcohol consumption, anesthesia exposure, or head trauma.

68 A careful history of patients presenting with daytime sleepiness and infectious disease aids in the determination of a proper differential diagnosis. Hypersomnia Associated with Neurologic Causes Intrinsic hypersomnia has been noted in patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson disease or Alzheimer disease. Occasionally, daytime sleepiness may be caused by other factors such as medications, sleep-disordered breathing, and periodic leg movements. Chronic sleepiness and insomnia have been reported in patients with acute stroke.

Three months or more of almost daily EDS 1. Three months or more of almost daily EDS 2. Cataplexy is present 2. Cataplexy is not present or only atypical catalexylike episodes are present 3. Polysomnography followed by MSLT is not necessary, but is useful for confirmation of diagnosis. 3. Polysomnography followed by MSLT is required for diagnosis. a. The polysomnography shows the absence of other causes of sleepiness (eg, OSA) and at least 6 hours of sleep. a. The polysomnography shows the absence of other causes of sleepiness (eg, OSA) and at least 6 hours of sleep.

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