By G. Padfield
The habit of helicopters is so advanced that knowing the actual mechanisms at paintings in trim, balance and reaction, and hence the prediction of flying characteristics, calls for a framework of analytical and numerical modeling and simulation. solid flying features are very important for making sure that venture functionality is conceivable with protection and, within the first variation of Helicopter Flight Dynamics, a finished therapy of layout standards used to be awarded. during this moment variation, the writer enhances this with a brand new bankruptcy on degraded flying characteristics, drawing examples from flight in bad visibility, failure of keep watch over features, and encounters with critical atmospheric disturbances. absolutely embracing the results of degraded flying traits through the layout section will give a contribution definitely to security.
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Some qualitative appreciation of vehicle dynamics can be gained, however, without recourse to detailed modelling. 5 illustrates the conventional main rotor collective and cyclic controls applied through a swash plate. Collective applies the same pitch angle to all blades and is the primary mechanism for direct lift or thrust control on the rotor. Cyclic is more 16 Helicopter Flight Dynamics Fig. 5 Rotor control through a swash plate complicated and can be fully appreciated only when the rotor is rotating.
Two distinct ﬂight regimes It is convenient for descriptive purposes to consider the ﬂight of the helicopter in two distinct regimes – hover/low speed (up to about 45 knots), including vertical manoeuvring, and mid/high speed ﬂight (up to Vne – never-exceed velocity). The lowspeed regime is very much unique to the helicopter as an operationally useful regime; no other ﬂight vehicles are so ﬂexible and efﬁcient at manoeuvring slowly, close to the ground and obstacles, with the pilot able to manoeuvre the aircraft almost with disregard for ﬂight direction.
1) in expanded form as a guiding light at the beginning of Chapter 3, the discourse on building simulation models. Duncan 2 Helicopter Flight Dynamics wrote these words in relation to ﬁxed-wing aircraft over 50 years ago and they still hold a profound truth today. However, while it may be ‘beyond dispute’ that welldeveloped theories of ﬂight are vital, a measure of the development level at any one time can be gauged by the ability of Industry to predict behaviour correctly before ﬁrst ﬂight, and rotorcraft experience to date is not good.