Grundlegende Statistik mit R. Eine anwendungsorientierte by Grob J

By Grob J

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4)) [1] TRUE Ganze Zahlen sind vom Datentyp integer (und ebenfalls vom Typ numeric). 10 Qualitative Variablen 29 Will man R zu verstehen geben, dass man explizit mit einer ganzen Zahl umgehen möchte, so kann die Zahl direkt gefolgt von einem L (nicht durch Leer- oder Multiplikationszeichen getrennt) angegeben werden. Man kann mit solchen Zahlen und Vektoren wie mit numerischen Vektoren umgehen. Dabei ist dann aber zum Beispiel 5L + 3 vom Typ numeric aber nicht mehr vom Typ integer. Hingegen ist 5L + 3L vom Typ integer.

X[order(x)] ist identisch mit sort(x), wenn keine fehlenden Werte vorliegen. last mit dem das Verhalten bei Vorliegen fehlender Werte gesteuert werden kann. Dieses ist aber unterschiedlich voreingestellt. Beispiel. R sortiert sind. R an das Ende des erzeugten Positionsvektors gestellt. 0 67 5 28 ... 3 56 5 5 ... 6 87 8 6 Eine absteigende Sortierung erhält man, wenn man in sort() bzw. order() das Argument decreasing = TRUE setzt. Kapitel 6 Datensätze einlesen Möchte man mit eigenen Datensätzen arbeiten, so liegen diese in der Regel in einer bestimmten Form als Datei vor.

1. Logische Vergleichsoperatoren und Verknüpfungen Bemerkung. Ein Vektor, dessen Einträge nur aus den Schlüsselbegriffen TRUE und FALSE besteht, bezeichnen wir als logischen Vektor. Logische Vektoren entsprechen einem eigenen Datentyp in R. logical() kann man sogar überprüfen, ob der Vektor von diesem Typ ist. 1 zeigt einige Symbole, die zu logischen Vergleichen verwendet werden können. = 0 [1] TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE elementweise überprüft, welche Elemente von Null verschieden sind. Ist das i-te Element von 0 verschieden, erhält das i-te Element im Ergebnis den Wert TRUE, andernfalls den Wert FALSE.

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