By V. A. Zubakov, I. I. Borzenkova
This can be a particular decription of the historical past and chronology of worldwide weather in line with event-signal stratigraphy. The historical past of worldwide weather is defined for the final fifty million years with the outline for the final 1000000 years intimately. Climatostratigraphic sequences of twelve key areas are taken as a foundation, 8 of them positioned within the USSR territories. Chronology of climatic occasions of the Pleistocene, Pliocene and Miocene is built according to palaeomagnetic and radiometric facts. The authors' model of its correlation with oxygene-isotope scales of deep-sea sediments is given. Theoretical difficulties of climatic stratigraphy and palaeoclimatology are mentioned, specifically, the factors of climatic swap. The Northern Hemisphere palaeoclimatic reconstructions are made for the Holocene, Eemian and Pliocene temperature optima, regarded as attainable palaeoanalogues of weather of the twenty first Century. The e-book is meant basically for a large circle of clinical employees, palaeoclimatologists and palaeogeographers, yet also will curiosity geologists, biologists, palaeomagnetologists and archaeologists.
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Extra info for Global Palaeoclimate of the Late Cenozoic
The subject of the present study is the geological climate, which is usually called the “palaeoclimate”. The palaeoclimate can be divided into the local and the global. e. the seasonal temperature fluctuations (summer and winter temperatures), atmospheric precipitation and its seasonal patterns, prevailing winds, river run-off, water temperature, sea currents and so on. The global climate is described by other parameters, including first of all the latitudinal climatic zonation (the temperature gradient between the equator and high latitudes), the extent of continentality, the atmospheric and oceanic circulation and so on.
Three of them belong to the lower taxonomic rank (nanno-, ortho- and super-clirnathems) and are specially designed for describing the Pleistocene climatic events. They will be substantiated and treated in every detail in the subsequent chapters. The greatest taxonomic unit in the scheme is a trendclimathem. It corresponds t o half the greatest climato - sedimentary cycle known in the Earth’s history, which lasted for about 300 Ma. Meteorology proceeds from a statistical understanding of climate as a combination of different types of weather (Lamb, 1972, 1977; Monin and Shishkov, 1979).
A fourth factor was discovered only recently: it is the thermal state of the deep ocean, and the water-mass mixing which appear to regulate the long-term state of climatic system. , 1982; Johnson, 1983 and others). Since the first mechanism is typical mostly of marginal low-latitude seas, sinking water would have very high salinity and high temperature, while the second mechanism brings down cold water. The presence of a freshened surface layer results in a strong density stratification, which prevents vertical water circulation.