By E. D. Yershov, Peter J. Williams
Within the chilly areas, freezing of the floor offers significant geotechnical and environmental demanding situations. In Russia, oil and gasoline provides those areas specific financial and geopolitical value. After glasnost, it turned obvious that study there has been extra finished however the difficulties some distance more than in different places. This translation of a wide-ranging account of the results of freezing and their significance for geotechnical undertakings, has been ready by way of a world staff of experts. It makes on hand a uniquely readable and technically exact overview, particularly worthwhile to overseas companies and people serious about joint ventures. The English variation of the 16-sheet geocryological map of Russian has been ready by means of an identical foreign group. For extra info please see: www.freezingground.org/map or touch Scott Polar examine Institute, (Attn. Prof. P. J. Williams), Lensfield Rd., Cambridge, CB2 1ER, united kingdom. - or electronic mail: email@example.com.
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Extra info for General Geocryology (Studies in Polar Research)
F. Y. Figurin and others) were working during the period from 1820 to 1828 and paying great attention to frozen ground and ground ice deposits. The first measurements of permafrost temperature were carried out by A. Erman in 1825 in Berezovo settlement in a well which was 18 m in depth. In 1828 Fedor Shergin, an employee of the Russian-American Company, had taken charge of work on sinking the deep well for water supply in Yakutsk and which took 9 years. In 1837 the sinking was ended at the depth of 116 m because there were no water-bearing horizons there.
This caused the transition of ground water into ice and hence the transition of soils into the qualitatively new (frozen) state. The possibility or impossibility of negative temperatures in the surface layer of the lithosphere is determined by the relationships of the components of the Earth's energy (thermal) balance. It can be supposed that the periods of glacial epochs and permafrost originated as a result of the appropriate climate changes on the planet being predetermined first of all by astronomic factors and associated with particular tectonic developments as well.
Allowing for the seasonally frozen ground, the area occupied by frozen ground is as large as 50% of the Earth's continents and nearly 100% of the territory of the former USSR (Fig. 5). Great changes and discontinuity in time as well as space are typical of frozen ground. Thus 16 Introduction Fig. 5. Map of contemporary distribution of frozen ground on the Earth: 1-4 - permafrost (of types: 1 - glacier; 2 - ice; 3 - mountain; 4 - plain); 5-6 - seasonally frozen ground (5 - of humid; 6 - of arid type).