Gender, War and Politics: Transatlantic Perspectives, by Karen Hagemann, Jane Rendall, Gisela Mettele

By Karen Hagemann, Jane Rendall, Gisela Mettele

Within the interval among 1775 and 1830 the transatlantic international skilled roughly consistent struggle, touching not just each eu nation but additionally North and South the US and the Caribbean Islands. The Wars of Revolution and Liberation, encouraged by means of progressive or nationwide ideologies, have been more and more fought through conscripted troops and militias along specialist armies. The behavior of battle was once reworked, as mass armies have been deployed through either progressive and conservative regimes, deeply affecting the political, social and gender order of the societies concerned. not just squaddies but additionally civilians—men and girls alike—had to be mobilized on an extraordinary scale. This quantity addresses the connection among those wars, constructing political and nationwide identities and the altering gender regimes of Europe and the Americas. either unfastened and slave societies, it explores army and civilian reports of conflict and revolution, which formed in addition to mirrored gender options and practices, when it comes to type, ethnicity, race and faith.

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74 Catriona Kennedy questions this interpretation here, arguing that the ideal of the citizen-soldier was not a dominant one in the British military of the period. Different concepts of masculinity such as the classspecific values of the polite gentleman and the military code of personal honour might be held simultaneously by officers. 75 A transatlantic comparison thus suggests that in all the nations and states involved in the Wars of Revolution and Liberation, masculinity had some association with military values, as a means of mobilizing broad strata of men for mass warfare.

Throughout the eighteenth century governments and military leaders had tried to regulate the number of women and children who accompanied the troops during campaigns, but with little success. The partnership of a soldier and a working woman secured the precarious reproduction of both. 88 Holly A. 89 With the rising size of armies, their professionalization and the related changes in the conduct of warfare, military leaders increasingly tried to reduce and regulate the number of camp followers. 90 Cardoza demonstrates the extent of the increased regulation of camp followers in the French army through an analysis of the changes between 1775 and 1820.

Throughout the country, each side confiscated the properties of suspected enemies, and in the south entire communities were relocated in an effort to prevent the civilian population from providing support to invading troops. Because most wars between 1775 and 1830 were struggles over the very existence of old and new states and nations, legitimated by new and powerful political ideologies, the civilian population became a military target as armies aimed for an annihilating victory over the enemy.

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