By Sparke L. S., Gallagher J. S.
Revised moment version for complex undergraduate scholars in astronomy and astrophysics.
Read Online or Download Galaxies in the Universe: An Introduction (2007)(2nd ed.)(en)(431s) PDF
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Extra resources for Galaxies in the Universe: An Introduction (2007)(2nd ed.)(en)(431s)
The center of the Galaxy lies in the direction α = 17h 42m 24s , δ = −28◦ 55 (equinox 1950). Galactic longitude l is measured in the plane of the disk from the Sun–center line, deﬁned as l = 0, toward the direction of the Sun’s rotation, l = 90◦ . The region 0 < l < 180◦ is sometimes called the ‘northern’ half of the Galaxy, because it is visible from the Earth’s northern hemisphere, while 180◦ < l < 360◦ is the ‘southern’ Galaxy. 3 Other galaxies gives the angle of a star away from the plane of the disk; b is measured positive toward the north Galactic pole at α = 12h 49m , δ = 27◦ 24 (1950).
19) Vr is the radial velocity, the speed at which the source moves away from us, and c is the speed of light. Radio telescopes routinely measure wavelengths and velocities to about one part in 106 , while optical telescopes normally do no better than one part in 105 . 2 Our Milky Way 33 the year; quoted velocities are generally heliocentric, measured relative to the Sun. A diffuse ionized gas also produces continuum radiation. Free–free radiation (also called bremsstrahlung, or braking radiation) is produced when the electrical forces from ions deﬂect free electrons onto curved paths, so that they radiate.
Astronomers refer to the wavelengths where it is fairly transparent, roughly from ˚ as visible light. At the red end of this range, we encounter 3400 A˚ to 8000 A, absorption bands of water and of atmospheric molecules such as oxygen, O2 . Between about 9000 A˚ and 20 μm, windows of transparency alternate with regions where light is almost completely blocked. 15 shows that it emits quite brightly. The standard infrared bandpasses have been placed in relatively transparent regions. The K bandpass is very similar to K , but it has become popular because it blocks out light at the longer-wavelength end of the K band, where atmospheric molecules and warm parts of the telescope emit strongly.