By Brian Fagan
In 1999, few humans had notion to check the results of weather on civilization. Now, due partly to the groundbreaking paintings of archaeologist Brian Fagan, weather switch is a relevant factor. Revised and up-to-date ten years after its first ebook, Floods, Famines and Emperors continues to be the definitive account of the way the world’s best-known weather occasion had an indelible effect on heritage.
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Additional resources for Floods, Famines, and Emperors: El Niño and the Fate of Civilizations (Revised Edition)
4 . T h e nonuniform grids u s e d for numerically s o l v i n g the N a v i e r - S t o k e s equations for flow past a columnar i c e crystal: (a) broadside v i e w ; (b) e n d view. 3. HYDRODYNAMICS OF SMALL ICE PARTICLES 51 FIG. 4. Continued. where V" is the velocity solved at time step n and Ar is the time increment. 7) At (see, for example, Peyret and Taylor, 1983). 8) A scheme of quadratic upstream interpolation for convective kinematics (QUICK) is used here (Leonard, 1979, 1983; Freitas et al, 1985; Davis, 1984).
19), while a, C, and A are parameter a and C have dimensions of length whereas A, is a dimensionles s number; C is one-half the length from the apex to the bottom along the z-axis, the center point being defined as the origin O, and a is defined in the following paragraph . l(>) is the equation of an ellipse whose semi-axes in the x and z directions are a and C, respectively. Therefore, Eq. 25) can be thought of as an ellipse modulated FIG. 19. Definitions of the coordinate system and various quantities appearing in Eq.
MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTIONS OF ICE PARTICLE SIZE AND SHAPE 29 where m = 2 and « = 1 here. 16. The widths of the branches are controlled by b and b' in Eq. 22). For example, if we change the values of ^ = ^’ = 2 in Eq. 17b. In both examples , the branches have relatively flat end surfaces that are close to the actual samples . However, there are cases where the end surfaces are capped plates that are not simulated here. The shape of each branch is not hexagonal , in contrast to real ice bullets. It is unclear at this point whether this really matters much in terms of the bulk radiative properties.