By Rolf K. Eckhoff
Explosions within the technique industries injure or kill 1000's, if no longer hundreds of thousands, of employees each year. They occur
in method crops, refineries, systems and pipelines around the globe. thousands of greenbacks are spent repairing
damages, exchanging gear and rebuilding amenities within the wake of this destruction. This ebook explores
different kinds of explosions which may take place in a facility and the mandatory steps to protect opposed to them. A clear
set of preventative measures, principles and criteria mix to make this e-book a handy advisor to real-world
applications. extra theoretical concerns within the use of probabilistic equations and eventualities make this book
an absolute necessity for procedure safeguard.
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Additional resources for Explosion Hazards in the Process Industry
The phrase effective ignition source indicates that a particular source will actually cause ignition if brought into contact with the specific explosive atmosphere of concern. Numerous national and international standards and guidelines are currently in place for preventing accidental ignition of explosive atmospheres. In Europe, a comprehensive standard was drafted by CEN Burning velocities in premixed propane/air (m/s) Detonation max. 1800 m/s Turbulent burning Laminar burning Volume % propane in air Figure 2-12 Burning velocities in premixed propane/air at atmospheric pressure and normal temperature, for different combustion modes (laminar, turbulent, detonation).
This means that steel sparks from single impacts are unlikely to ignite natural gas/air. However, burning particles of titanium, zirconium, magnesium and aluminum can ignite such gases. According to Powell (1984) the low probability of igniting methane/air and group HA gases/air (see Table 2-2) with steel sparks from single impacts is in accordance with American and British recommendations saying that "non-sparking" tools are superfluous in areas where such gases may be present. Pedersen and Eckhoff (1986) studied the ignition of propane/air and acetylene/air by heat generated in tangential impacts between tips of different steel qualities or of titanium and a rusty or sandblasted steel plate.
In this case, an explosive pentane/air mixture was flowing past a stationary hot metal rod at comparatively high velocities. The minimum rod temperature for ignition was recorded as a function of rod diameter and gas velocity. Figure 2-15 reveals the same main trends as Figure 2-14. T min decreases systematically with increasing size of the hot surface and with decreasing relative velocity between the hot surface and the gas. It should be noted that the range of relative velocities is considerably higher in Figure 2-15 than in Figure 2-14, by a factor of about 10.