Epistemic modality by Andy Egan, Brian Weatherson

By Andy Egan, Brian Weatherson

"There is lots we do not understand. that suggests that there are various probabilities which are, epistemically talking, open. for example, we do not recognize no matter if it rained in Seattle the day prior to this. So, for us no less than, there's an epistemic danger the place it rained in Seattle the day prior to this, and one the place it didn't. What are those epistemic chances? they don't fit up with metaphysical probabilities -- there are Read more...

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The difference in situation affects what the speaker could reasonably intend and plausibly be taken to mean, not the semantic content of the uttered sentence. This factor favors Radical Invariantism. 2. Asking about a possibility This case poses a little puzzle. Often when we are curious or concerned about something, we naturally ask someone who is more informed about it than we are. Even if they are not in a position to resolve the issue, we can still ask them about the possibilities. For example, a bout of chronic coughing might lead you to consult a pulmonary specialist.

23 I won’t hide my preference for Radical Invariantism. The first two examples involve two people who, with different bodies of knowledge, take different perspectives on the same possibility. This situation raises the question of what is going on when one believes that something is possible and the other believes that it is not. Do they really disagree? Or, since they are considering 21 It won’t help to invoke sentence tokens, as if these have autonomous semantic properties. In my view, token semantics is, well, token semantics.

Contextualism says they are, one relative to my context and one relative to my wife’s. Radical Invariantism denies that they are semantically expressed at all. As before, it agrees with Relativism that (13) expresses the same thing independently of who is considering it or from what perspective, but again, since no perspective is mentioned, it denies that this thing is a proposition. One difficulty with the above contextualist treatment of this example is that there is only one context. In the Eavesdropping case it is plausible to suppose that the context in which my wife heard me utter (13) was different from the context in which I uttered it, although how plausible this suggestion is obviously depends on how the operative notion of context is fleshed out.

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