Encyclopedia of explosives and related items Vol. 5 by by Basil T. Fedoroff ...

By by Basil T. Fedoroff ...

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2. , it is at a temperature T1, pressure PA and volume VA. , the gas now has temperature T2, pressure PD and volume VD (the path in this instance is opposite to the arrow mark). The line AD represents the path the gas has followed during adiabatic expansion from A to D. The AD curve is in fact the plot of PVγ = Constant passing through point “A”. The work done by the gas is represented by the area under the curve AD (shaded region). If the gas is again adiabatically compressed from D to A (towards the arrow mark), an equal amount of work will have to be done on the gas and the gas would return to its original state.

There are other ways of determining values of entropy at different states such as at A and C (S A and S C) and for commonly used materials and conditions, S A and S C may be available from Tables. Thus, ∆S is separately determinable.. 8. FREE ENERGY We see now th at, in cases of th e type cited above. the entropy change of universe is determinable based on the propenies of system itself. We need not really study the surroundings to find out its entropy change. F in this example has a negative value, and it has dimension of ene rgy.

In case of stable compounds, the integration method (Fig. 5) is used for entropy determination. While absolute entropy values can now be determined absolute values of Internal Energy and Enthalpy cannot be conceived. For ease of calculation, related especially to metallurgical reactions (constant pressure processes), a suitable reference point of enthalpy is conventionally chosen and that is – for pure elements, the enthalpy is zero when in ‘Standard State’. e .. close to ambient conditions. 11.

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