By Mohammad Reza Farzanegan, Pooya Alaedini
This booklet examines financial inequality and social disparity in Iran, including their drivers, during the last 4 a long time. in this interval, source of revenue distribution and financial welfare have been suffering from the 1979 Revolution, the eight-year conflict with Iraq, post-war privatization and fiscal liberalization projects conducted less than the Rafsanjani and Khatami administrations, the ascendance of a populist fiscal platform below the Ahmadinejad management, and the lifting of strength and fiscal sanctions lower than the Rouhani management. that includes a mixture of students, together with Iranian lecturers who skilled those adjustments and are publishing in English for the 1st time, this assortment deals quantitative and descriptive reports of the country's post-revolutionary fiscal improvement and disparities. In so much chapters, a speculation is constructed from present theories or observations, that is then verified utilizing on hand facts. This distinctive mix of latest voices, educational in addition to own reports, and clinical equipment might be a beneficial addition to the library of the students of recent Iran’s economic system and society.
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Additional resources for Economic Welfare and Inequality in Iran: Developments since the Revolution
The number of retail and wholesale workshops with 5 or fewer workers more than doubled between 1986 and 2002 from 706,466 to 1,456,131, whereas the number of those employing more than 50 workers declined from 439 to 371 during the same period (SCI 1988, 2003). These developments may have been inﬂuenced by rapid urbanization on the one hand and the social roots of the post-revolutionary cadre in the traditional bazar and petty bourgeoisie on the other. They nonetheless point to the IRAN’S POST-REVOLUTIONARY SOCIAL JUSTICE AGENDA AND ITS.
Finally, our only measure of inequality in this study has been the Gini coefﬁcient while we have made use of a global deﬁnition of the income middle class with high lower and upper bounds. Employing additional inequality measures and trying out a carefully thought-of deﬁnition of the income middle class suited to Iran can further enhance the analysis. NOTES 1. Systematic discussions on Iran’s political economy were initiated especially by Katouzian (1981) as well as Karshenas (1990). 2. English translations of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran may be accessed through the website of the World Bank’s Financial Disclosure Law Library (http://publicofﬁcialsﬁnancialdisclosure.
A bill was approved by Iran’s Islamic Consultative Assembly in 2010 to initiate subsidy reforms covering a number of items—particularly energy. Indeed, energy subsidies are believed to have encouraged waste and diverted investment in oil and gas production to consumption (IMF 2010). They further tend to beneﬁt the well-to-do with higher consumption rates as compared to the lower-income strata of the society. Thus, another important scheme, also initiated originally during President Ahmadinejad’s tenure, has comprised replacing part of the energy subsidies by yet another untargeted social program entailing direct cash transfers to every Iranian citizen.