By Fernando Pacheco-Torgal
Eco-efficient development and construction fabrics experiences methods of assessing the environmental effect of building and construction fabrics. half one discusses the appliance of lifestyles cycle review (LCA) method to development fabrics in addition to eco-labelling. half comprises case experiences exhibiting the applying of LCA technique to kinds of development fabric, from cement and urban to wooden and adhesives utilized in construction. half 3 contains case stories employing LCA method to specific constructions and parts.
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Eco-efficient development and construction fabrics experiences methods of assessing the environmental influence of building and construction fabrics. half one discusses the applying of lifestyles cycle review (LCA) technique to development fabrics in addition to eco-labelling. half contains case experiences exhibiting the appliance of LCA method to kinds of construction fabric, from cement and urban to wooden and adhesives utilized in development.
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Additional resources for Eco-efficient construction and building materials: Life cycle assessment (LCA), eco-labelling and case studies
A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. A. 3 Degree of depletion as a percentage of the main non-fuel mineral commodity reserves. Updated from Valero and Valero (2010a). of 31 years, tin (77%, 19 years), arsenic (75%, 23 years), antimony (74%, 11 years), gold (74%, 21 years), lead (73%, 21 years) and silver (72%, 19 years). Conversely, the minerals of caesium, thorium, rare earth elements (REE), iodine, vanadium, potash, platinum group metals (PGM), tantalum, aluminium and cobalt are the least depleted commodities, having extracted less than 20% of their respective reserves.
A way to tackle this problem is to include a new stage in the LCA methodology: the grave to cradle. The idea behind this is to assess the exergy replacement costs (exergy required with available technologies) to replace minerals dispersed throughout the crust after the useful life of products comes to an end, to the initial conditions of composition and concentration at which they were found in the mines. 11 shows in a schematic way the four stages in the ‘grave to grave’ approach. During millions of years, the Earth has formed through natural concentration and refining of processes the current mineral stock.
2 Cumulative production of important non-fuel minerals in the period from 1900 to 2008, excluding phosphate rock, limestone, iron ore, gypsum and aluminium. © Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2014 18 Eco-efficient construction and building materials applications due to its lower density and corrosion resistance. 45%) are the other four metals with significant extraction rates. The building industry also plays a key role in the core consumption of non-metals. Limestone, from which lime is produced, is used amongst many other applications as a raw material in Portland cement and as an aggregate in concrete.